Online first
Original article
Published online: 2024-05-10

open access

Page views 34
Article views/downloads 16
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Ten-Year Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Inpatient and Outpatient Care Utilization Patterns in Polish Healthcare

Antoni Zyśk1, Inga Magda2, Kamila Kosyra2, Zuzanna Marczyńska3, Marta Drabczyk4

Abstract

Introduction and purpose: Ambulatory healthcare plays a crucial role in the overall healthcare system, providing a range of services that are designed to be delivered on an outpatient basis. Offering preventive care, health education, managing chronic diseases and non-life-threatening urgent situations may alleviate the burden on hospitals and provide high-quality, time- and cost-effective healthcare system. In this study authors conduct a retrospective comparative analysis of inpatient and outpatient healthcare trends based on data provided by the Central Statistics Office of Poland in ten years period between 2012 and 2022. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted using publicly available healthcare data sourced from databases provided by the Central Statistics Office of Poland. Results: The analysis reveals significant increase in the average annual number of outpatient visits per person (6,69 +/- 0,39 vs. 7,70 +/- 0,56; p < 0,001) and decrease in annual hospitalizations per person (0,20 +/- 0,02 vs. 0,18 +/- 0,02; p < 0,001) during past decade. In addition, significant increase of annual number of visits per person to both specialists (2,66 +/- 0,36 vs. 2,99 +/- 0,55; p < 0,001) and general practitioners (4,04 +/- 0,26 vs. 4,71 +/- 0,34; p < 0,001) were noted. Noteworthy, in Mazowieckie voivodeship data reveals distinct healthcare service utilization pattern with more frequent specialized care and less frequent primary care outpatient visits in comparison to other polish provinces. During COVID-19 pandemic, across whole country, substantial decrease in both hospitalization rates (0,19 +/- 0,02 vs. 0,15 +/- 0,01; p < 0,001) and outpatient visits (4,57 +/- 0,25 vs. 4,13 +/- 0,26; p < 0,001) per person were noted. Conclusions: This study indicate a significant shift in healthcare utilization patterns towards outpatient services, and a corresponding decline in hospitalization rates during past ten years across Poland.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Schuettig W, Sundmacher L. The impact of ambulatory care spending, continuity and processes of care on ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations. Eur J Health Econ. 2022; 23(8): 1329–1340.
  2. Talbird SE, Carrico J, La EM, et al. Impact of Routine Childhood Immunization in Reducing Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States. Pediatrics. 2022; 150(3): e2021056013.
  3. Yedlapati SH, Khan SU, Talluri S, et al. Effects of Influenza Vaccine on Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021; 10(6): e019636.
  4. Laditka JN, Laditka SB, Probst JC. More may be better: evidence of a negative relationship between physician supply and hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Health Serv Res. 2005; 40(4): 1148–1166.
  5. Preitschopf A, Holstege M, Ligthart A, et al. Effectiveness of outpatient geriatric rehabilitation after inpatient geriatric rehabilitation or hospitalisation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 2023; 52(1): afac300.
  6. Soucier RJ, Miller PE, Ingrassia JJ, et al. Essential Elements of Early Post Discharge Care of Patients with Heart Failure. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2018; 15(3): 181–190.
  7. Reynolds R, Dennis S, Hasan I, et al. A systematic review of chronic disease management interventions in primary care. BMC Fam Pract. 2018; 19(1): 11.
  8. Randall S, Crawford T, Currie J, et al. Impact of community based nurse-led clinics on patient outcomes, patient satisfaction, patient access and cost effectiveness: A systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2017; 73: 24–33.
  9. Heisler M, Lapidos A, Kieffer E, et al. Impact on Health Care Utilization and Costs of a Medicaid Community Health Worker Program in Detroit, 2018-2020: A Randomized Program Evaluation. Am J Public Health. 2022; 112(5): 766–775.
  10. Tan LF, Kreston J. Cost-effective ambulatory care for emergency department avoidance. J Urgent Care Med. 2022; 16(10): 25–32.
  11. GUS. https://bdl.stat.gov.pl/bdl/start (17.03.2024).
  12. van der Pol M, Olajide D, Dusheiko M, et al. The impact of quality and accessibility of primary care on emergency admissions for a range of chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) in Scotland: longitudinal analysis. BMC Fam Pract. 2019; 20(1): 32.
  13. Hodgson K, Deeny SR, Steventon A. Ambulatory care-sensitive conditions: their potential uses and limitations. BMJ Qual Saf. 2019; 28(6): 429–433.
  14. Phillips CD, Truong C, Kum HC, et al. The Effects of Chronic Disease on Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Hospitalizations for Children or Youth. Health Serv Insights. 2019; 12: 1178632919879422.
  15. Walewska-Zielecka B, Religioni U, Soszyński P, et al. Evidence-Based Care Reduces Unnecessary Medical Procedures and Healthcare Costs in the Outpatient Setting. Value Health Reg Issues. 2021; 25: 23–28.
  16. Birkmeyer JD, Barnato A, Birkmeyer N, et al. The Impact Of The COVID-19 Pandemic On Hospital Admissions In The United States. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020; 39(11): 2010–2017.
  17. DiFazio LT, Curran T, Bilaniuk JW, et al. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Hospital Admissions for Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. Am Surg. 2020; 86(8): 901–903.
  18. Wells RD. Ambulatory care in interventional radiology: a framework for radiology day-case. Clin Radiol. 2022; 77(7): 489–495.
  19. Cruz L, Grullón-Rodríguez H, López-Bencosme Y, et al. Ambulatory Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty: a safe resource for low income countries. Medical Research Archives. 2023; 11(10): 1–8.
  20. Nordin AB, Shah SR, Kenney BD. Ambulatory pediatric surgery. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2018; 27(2): 75–78.
  21. Shariat A, Marcus B, Latmore M. High turnover for ambulatory orthopedic surgery. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2021; 34(5): 659–665.
  22. Skues M. Emergency ambulatory surgery: Can it work? Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2023; 37(3): 387–395.
  23. Kim K, Moody P. More resources better health? A cross-national perspective. Social Science & Medicine. 1992; 34(8): 837–842.
  24. Zimlichman E, Nicklin W, Aggarwal, R, et al. Health Care 2030: The Coming Transformation. Catalyst Non-Issue Content, 2(2). NEJM Catalyst. 2021.
  25. Jeong HKi, Park C, Henao R, et al. Deep Learning in Dermatology: A Systematic Review of Current Approaches, Outcomes, and Limitations. JID Innov. 2023; 3(1): 100150.
  26. Batsis JA, DiMilia PR, Seo LM, et al. Effectiveness of Ambulatory Telemedicine Care in Older Adults: A Systematic Review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019; 67(8): 1737–1749.
  27. Ruberti OM, Yugar-Toledo JC, Moreno H, et al. Hypertension telemonitoring and home-based physical training programs. Blood Press. 2021; 30(6): 428–438.
  28. Kennel PJ, Rosenblum H, Axsom KM, et al. Remote Cardiac Monitoring in Patients With Heart Failure: A Review. JAMA Cardiol. 2022; 7(5): 556–564.
  29. Wammes JJ, van der Wees PJ, Tanke MAC, et al. Systematic review of high-cost patients' characteristics and healthcare utilisation. BMJ Open. 2018; 8(9): e023113.
  30. Paul MC, Dik JWH, Hoekstra T, et al. Admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: a national observational study in the general and COPD population. Eur J Public Health. 2019; 29(2): 213–219.
  31. Dantas I, Santana R, Sarmento J, et al. The impact of multiple chronic diseases on hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016; 16(a): 348.