Vol 9, No 1 (2024)
Original article
Published online: 2024-01-16

open access

Page views 522
Article views/downloads 280
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

A study on hand grip strength and its association with body mass index, hand length and mid-upper arm circumference among Eastern Indian medical students using a hand-held dynamometer

Ahana Chattopadhyay1, Saswati Ray2, Debarati Chanda2, Debjani Chakraborti2
Medical Research Journal 2024;9(1):35-41.


Introduction: Hand Grip Strength, measured by hand-grip dynamometry, is a measure of muscular
strength. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the correlation between Hand Grip
Strength (HGS) and different anthropometric measurements like Body Mass Index (BMI), Hand Length
(HL) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) among undergraduate medical students of a Tertiary
Health Care Institute in West Bengal.

Material and methods: This research, which was cross-sectional, analytical, and observational, had two groups
of fifty male and fifty female participants in the 19–25 age range. An analogue, basic metal hand-grip dynamometer
weighing 50 kg was used. The recorded HGS value was the average of three trials, with a 15-second
inter-trial rest interval between each trial. For Statistical Analysis, Tests of Significance (Student’s t-test
and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient) have been used. P-values ≤ 0.05 have been considered significant.

Results: A hundred undergraduate medical students of the age group 19–25 years were divided into
two groups, male (50) and female (50). A significant strong positive correlation of HL (r = 0.6308,
p < 0.00001) with Dominant Hand Grip Strength (DHGS) was found in the general population. However,
no significant correlation of BMI (r = 0.0831, p = 0.411091) with DHGS was observed. A significant weak
positive correlation of age (r = 0.2790, p = 0.004939) with DHGS was observed and a significant moderate
positive correlation of MUAC (r = 0.4035, p = 0.000031) with DHGS was seen. Significant weak positive
correlations of HL (r = 0.3227, p = 0.022275) and MUAC (r = 0.3788, p = 0.006674) with DHGS were
observed for females. Males recorded greater values of DHGS (17.6526 kg) and NDHGS (16.7430 kg)
than females (DHGS = 7.3856 kg, NDHGS = 6.6404 kg) and the difference was statistically significant.

Conclusion: Thus, it may be concluded that the most significant predictor of hand grip strength (HGS)
is hand length (HL).

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Bohannon R. Muscle strength: clinical and prognostic value of hand-grip dynamometry. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 2015; 18(5): 465–470.
  2. Koley S, Pal Kaur S. Correlations of Handgrip Strength with Selected Hand-Arm-Anthropometric Variables in Indian Inter-university Female Volleyball Players. Asian J Sports Med. 2011; 2(4): 220–226.
  3. Silventoinen K, Magnusson PKE, Tynelius P, et al. Association of body size and muscle strength with incidence of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases: a population-based cohort study of one million Swedish men. Int J Epidemiol. 2009; 38(1): 110–118.
  4. Visser J, Mans E, de Visser M, et al. Comparison of maximal voluntary isometric contraction and hand-held dynamometry in measuring muscle strength of patients with progressive lower motor neuron syndrome. Neuromuscul Disord. 2003; 13(9): 744–750.
  5. Groslambert A, Nachon M, Rouillon JD. Influence of the age on self regulation of static grip forces from perceived exertion values. Neurosci Lett. 2002; 325(1): 52–56.
  6. Fallahi AA, Jadidian AA. The effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. J Hum Kinet. 2011; 29: 151–159.
  7. Vaz M, Thangam S, Prabhu A, et al. Maximal voluntary contraction as a functional indicator of adult chronic undernutrition. Br J Nutr. 1996; 76(1): 9–15.
  8. Klidjian AM, Foster KJ, Kammerling RM, et al. Relation of anthropometric and dynamometric variables to serious postoperative complications. Br Med J. 1980; 281(6245): 899–901.
  9. Marques A, Henriques-Neto D, Peralta M, et al. Exploring grip strength as a predictor of depression in middle-aged and older adults. Sci Rep. 2021; 11(1): 15946.
  10. Gil S, Jacob Filho W, Shinjo SK, et al. HCFMUSP COVID-19 Study Group. Muscle strength and muscle mass as predictors of hospital length of stay in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19: a prospective observational study. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021; 12(6): 1871–1878.
  11. Jürimäe T, Hurbo T, Jürimäe J. Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children. Homo. 2009; 60(3): 225–238.
  12. Damayanthi HD, Moy FM, Abdullah KL, et al. Handgrip Strength and Its Associated Factors among Community-dwelling Elderly in Sri Lanka: A Cross-sectional Study. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci). 2018; 12(3): 231–236.
  13. Wang YC, Bohannon RW, Li X, et al. Hand-Grip Strength: Normative Reference Values and Equations for Individuals 18 to 85 Years of Age Residing in the United States. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2018; 48(9): 685–693.
  14. Liao KH. Experimental study on gender differences in hands and sequence of force application on grip and hand-grip control. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2014; 20(1): 77–90.
  15. Incel NA, Ceceli E, Durukan PB, et al. Grip strength: effect of hand dominance. Singapore Med J. 2002; 43(5): 234–237.
  16. Semproli S, Brasili P, Toselli S, et al. The influence of anthropometric characteristics to the handgrip and pinch strength in 6-10-year old children. Anthropologischer Anzeiger. 2007; 65(3): 293–302.
  17. Lin MH, Chang CY, Lu CH, et al. Association between grip strength and anthropometric characteristics in the community-dwelling elderly population in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2021; 16(12): e0260763.
  18. Zaccagni L, Toselli S, Bramanti B, et al. Handgrip Strength in Young Adults: Association with Anthropometric Variables and Laterality. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(12).
  19. Horowitz B, Tollin R, Cassidy G. Grip Strength. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Geriatrics. 2009; 15(1): 53–64.
  20. Ibegbu A, Baita M, Hamman W, et al. Evaluation of the Relationship between Handgrip Strength with Some Anthropometries among Nigerian Secondary School Students. The Anthropologist. 2017; 17(3): 921–927.
  21. Innes Ev. Handgrip strength testing: A review of the literature. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 2002; 46(3): 120–140.
  22. Sağiroğlu İ, Kurt C, Ömürlü İK, et al. Does hand grip strength change with gender? The traditional method vs. the allometric normalisation method. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science. 2017; 2(5): 84–93.
  23. Hanten WP, Chen WY, Austin AA, et al. Maximum grip strength in normal subjects from 20 to 64 years of age. J Hand Ther. 1999; 12(3): 193–200.
  24. Burke WE, Tuttle WW, Thompson CW, et al. The relation of grip strength and grip-strength endurance to age. J Appl Physiol. 1953; 5(10): 628–630.
  25. Alahmari KA, Silvian SP, Reddy RS, et al. Hand grip strength determination for healthy males in Saudi Arabia: A study of the relationship with age, body mass index, hand length and forearm circumference using a hand-held dynamometer. J Int Med Res. 2017; 45(2): 540–548.
  26. Bhattacharjya J, Goswami B. Hand Grip Muscle Strength, Endurance and Anthropometric Parameters in Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-sectional Study. Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research. 2022; 16(9).
  27. Kamarul T, Ahmad TS, Loh WYC. Hand grip strength in the adult Malaysian population. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2006; 14(2): 172–177.
  28. Mitsionis G, Pakos EE, Stafilas KS, et al. Normative data on hand grip strength in a Greek adult population. Int Orthop. 2009; 33(3): 713–717.
  29. Shah UN, Sirajudeen MS, Somasekaran PK, et al. The association between hand grip strength and hand dimensions in healthy Indian females. IJCRR. 2012; 4: 36–42.
  30. Koley S, Singh AP. An association of dominant hand grip strength with some anthropometric variables in Indian collegiate population. Anthropol Anz. 2009; 67(1): 21–28.
  31. Härkönen R, Piirtomaa M, Alaranta H. Grip strength and hand position of the dynamometer in 204 Finnish adults. J Hand Surg Br. 1993; 18(1): 129–132.
  32. Petersen P, Petrick M, Connor H, et al. Grip strength and hand dominance: challenging the 10% rule. Am J Occup Ther. 1989; 43(7): 444–447.