open access

Vol 72, No 6 (2014)
Original articles
Published online: 2014-06-11
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Long-term follow-up of DDD pacing mode

Mateusz Ulman, Maciej Dębski, Andrzej Ząbek, Kazimierz Haberka, Jacek Lelakowski, Barbara Małecka
DOI: 10.5603/KP.a2014.0020
·
Kardiol Pol 2014;72(6):519-526.

open access

Vol 72, No 6 (2014)
Original articles
Published online: 2014-06-11

Abstract

Background and aim: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term survival of DDD pacing and identify the main reasons for its loss.

Methods: The study group consisted of 496 patients in whom a DDD pacing system was implanted between October 1984 and March 2002 and who were followed up until July 2010. The follow-up period was 152.1 ± 35.5 months. The patients’ meanage at the time of implantation was 59.5 ± 12.5 years, and 53.5% were male; 58% had sick sinus syndrome (SSS), 26% had atrioventricular block (AVB), 15% had both of these indications simultaneously, and 1% had other indications. The incidence of lead malfunction, progression to chronic atrial fibrillation (AF), and the rate of infective complications was analysed.

Results: During the follow-up, 369 patients remained in DDD mode stimulation. DDD mode survival rate at one, five, ten and 15 years was, respectively, 96%, 86%, 77% and 72%. The most common reason for reprogramming out of DDD mode was the development of permanent AF in 65 (13.1%) patients. The occurrence of chronic AF was associated with a priorhistory of paroxysmal AF (p = 0.0001), SSS (p = 0.0215), and older age at time of implantation (p = 0.0068) compared to patients who remained in sinus rhythm. Lead malfunction caused loss of DDD mode pacing in 56 (11.3%) patients. Atrial leads were damaged in 37 patients, ventricular in 12 patients, and both leads in seven patients. The subclavian vein puncture was correlated with the mechanical damage of the atrial lead (p = 0.02935) compared to cephalic vein access. At the moment of complication, the patients with a dysfunctional lead were significantly younger than those who progressed to chronic AF(p = 0.0019). Infective complications which caused temporary loss of DDD pacing were observed in six patients: five had pocket infection and one had lead-dependent infective endocarditis.

Conclusions: 1. Effective DDD pacing from the originally implanted system was noted in a high percentage (72%) of patients in long-term observation (15 years). 2. Progression to permanent AF is the most common reason for loss of DDD pacing;a history of paroxysmal AF and old age are the risk factors. 3. Subclavian vein puncture is associated with a higher rate of atrial lead damage.

Abstract

Background and aim: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term survival of DDD pacing and identify the main reasons for its loss.

Methods: The study group consisted of 496 patients in whom a DDD pacing system was implanted between October 1984 and March 2002 and who were followed up until July 2010. The follow-up period was 152.1 ± 35.5 months. The patients’ meanage at the time of implantation was 59.5 ± 12.5 years, and 53.5% were male; 58% had sick sinus syndrome (SSS), 26% had atrioventricular block (AVB), 15% had both of these indications simultaneously, and 1% had other indications. The incidence of lead malfunction, progression to chronic atrial fibrillation (AF), and the rate of infective complications was analysed.

Results: During the follow-up, 369 patients remained in DDD mode stimulation. DDD mode survival rate at one, five, ten and 15 years was, respectively, 96%, 86%, 77% and 72%. The most common reason for reprogramming out of DDD mode was the development of permanent AF in 65 (13.1%) patients. The occurrence of chronic AF was associated with a priorhistory of paroxysmal AF (p = 0.0001), SSS (p = 0.0215), and older age at time of implantation (p = 0.0068) compared to patients who remained in sinus rhythm. Lead malfunction caused loss of DDD mode pacing in 56 (11.3%) patients. Atrial leads were damaged in 37 patients, ventricular in 12 patients, and both leads in seven patients. The subclavian vein puncture was correlated with the mechanical damage of the atrial lead (p = 0.02935) compared to cephalic vein access. At the moment of complication, the patients with a dysfunctional lead were significantly younger than those who progressed to chronic AF(p = 0.0019). Infective complications which caused temporary loss of DDD pacing were observed in six patients: five had pocket infection and one had lead-dependent infective endocarditis.

Conclusions: 1. Effective DDD pacing from the originally implanted system was noted in a high percentage (72%) of patients in long-term observation (15 years). 2. Progression to permanent AF is the most common reason for loss of DDD pacing;a history of paroxysmal AF and old age are the risk factors. 3. Subclavian vein puncture is associated with a higher rate of atrial lead damage.

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Keywords

sick sinus syndrome, atrioventricular block, DDD pacing, atrial fibrillation, endocardial lead failure

About this article
Title

Long-term follow-up of DDD pacing mode

Journal

Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)

Issue

Vol 72, No 6 (2014)

Pages

519-526

Published online

2014-06-11

DOI

10.5603/KP.a2014.0020

Bibliographic record

Kardiol Pol 2014;72(6):519-526.

Keywords

sick sinus syndrome
atrioventricular block
DDD pacing
atrial fibrillation
endocardial lead failure

Authors

Mateusz Ulman
Maciej Dębski
Andrzej Ząbek
Kazimierz Haberka
Jacek Lelakowski
Barbara Małecka

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