open access

Vol 14, No 2 (2021)
Review paper
Published online: 2021-07-08
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Passive immunization in the combat against infectious diseases (COVID-19 included)

Joanna Lasocka, Artur Bielawski, Elżbieta Lachert
DOI: 10.5603/JTM.2021.0004
·
Journal of Transfusion Medicine 2021;14(2):50-57.

open access

Vol 14, No 2 (2021)
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Published online: 2021-07-08

Abstract

Passive immunization (passive immunity, passive immunotherapy) consists in the transfer of specific antibodies to an unprotected individual with the purpose of protecting from infection or treatment of the disease. Passive immunization is acquired either naturally (maternal antibodies cross the placenta to reach the fetus) or artificially when the patient is transfused with high-titer antibodies of human or animal origin or developed by genetic engineering (monoclonal antibodies, MAb). The beginnings of passive immunization date back to the end of the XIX century when Emil Adolf von Behring was the first to use antibodies of animal origin in the treatment of diphtheria and tetanus. In Poland, the Lublin Factory of Serum and Vaccines established in 1951 launched an industrial-scale production of immune sera against diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, meningitis and poliomyelitis (Heine Medin disease). Passive immunization is relied on for prevention of infection, for treatment of immunodeficiency disorders (including hypogammaglobulinemia), acute infections and poisoning. Immunity derived from passive immunization lasts for a few weeks to about four months. Since December 2019, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has initiated numerous randomized trials focused on determining the effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19 infected patients. In order to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions following the administration of convalescent plasma, attempts have been made to produce hyperimmune anti-SARS-CoV-2 globulin (hIVIG). It is also worthwhile to mention that there are ongoing clinical trials on anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin concentrate developed by Polish researchers under the supervision of Professor Tomasiewicz and in cooperation with BIOMED-LUBLIN (Project No. 2020/ABM/COVID19/0036).

Abstract

Passive immunization (passive immunity, passive immunotherapy) consists in the transfer of specific antibodies to an unprotected individual with the purpose of protecting from infection or treatment of the disease. Passive immunization is acquired either naturally (maternal antibodies cross the placenta to reach the fetus) or artificially when the patient is transfused with high-titer antibodies of human or animal origin or developed by genetic engineering (monoclonal antibodies, MAb). The beginnings of passive immunization date back to the end of the XIX century when Emil Adolf von Behring was the first to use antibodies of animal origin in the treatment of diphtheria and tetanus. In Poland, the Lublin Factory of Serum and Vaccines established in 1951 launched an industrial-scale production of immune sera against diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, meningitis and poliomyelitis (Heine Medin disease). Passive immunization is relied on for prevention of infection, for treatment of immunodeficiency disorders (including hypogammaglobulinemia), acute infections and poisoning. Immunity derived from passive immunization lasts for a few weeks to about four months. Since December 2019, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has initiated numerous randomized trials focused on determining the effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19 infected patients. In order to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions following the administration of convalescent plasma, attempts have been made to produce hyperimmune anti-SARS-CoV-2 globulin (hIVIG). It is also worthwhile to mention that there are ongoing clinical trials on anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin concentrate developed by Polish researchers under the supervision of Professor Tomasiewicz and in cooperation with BIOMED-LUBLIN (Project No. 2020/ABM/COVID19/0036).

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Keywords

passive immunization; convalescent plasma; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin

About this article
Title

Passive immunization in the combat against infectious diseases (COVID-19 included)

Journal

Journal of Transfusion Medicine

Issue

Vol 14, No 2 (2021)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

50-57

Published online

2021-07-08

DOI

10.5603/JTM.2021.0004

Bibliographic record

Journal of Transfusion Medicine 2021;14(2):50-57.

Keywords

passive immunization
convalescent plasma
SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19
anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin

Authors

Joanna Lasocka
Artur Bielawski
Elżbieta Lachert

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