open access

Vol 73, No 2 (2022)
Original article
Submitted: 2022-05-12
Accepted: 2022-06-22
Published online: 2022-06-29
Get Citation

Screening for type 2 diabetes and hypertension in seafarers’ medical examinations

Olaf Chresten Jensen1, Agnes Flores23, Victoria Corman14, Maria Luisa Canals5, David Lucas67, Ilona Denisenko8, Don Eliseo-III Lucero-Prisno910, Anna Lilja Secher11, Gregers Stig Andersen11, Marit Eika Jørgensen12, Helena Estopà Pujol13, Guido Cohen14, Finn Gyntelberg15
·
Pubmed: 35781681
·
IMH 2022;73(2):64-72.
Affiliations
  1. Centre for Maritime Health and Society, Department of Public Health, Southern Danish University, Esbjerg, Denmark
  2. Universidad Metropolitana de Educación Ciencia y Tecnología, Facultad de las Ciencias y Tecnología, Panama
  3. Caja Seguro Social, Rep. of Panamá, Vacamonte, Panama
  4. Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark
  5. University of Cadiz FUECA, Sociedad Española de Medicina Marítima (SEMM)/Sanidad Marítima, Tarragona, Spain
  6. French Society for Maritime Medicine, Brest, France
  7. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Western Brittany, Brest, France
  8. Regional Medical Office German Embassy Moscow, Russian Federation
  9. Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  10. Faculty of Management and Development Studies, University of the Philippines Open University, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines
  11. Clinical Research, Steno Diabetes Centre Copenhagen, Denmark
  12. Clinical Research, Steno Diabetes Centre Greenland, Greenland
  13. Sanidad Marítima (ISM), Barcelona, Spain
  14. Faculty of Medicine, Panama University, Rep. of Panama, Panama
  15. National Research Centre for Work Environment, Occupational Medicine Clinic, Bispebjerg Hospital, Denmark

open access

Vol 73, No 2 (2022)
MARITIME MEDICINE Original article
Submitted: 2022-05-12
Accepted: 2022-06-22
Published online: 2022-06-29

Abstract

Background: The aims of the study are: 1) to replace the urine glucose test for diabetes with more than 50% false negatives, with an accurate screening for type 2 diabetes and hypertension in the mandatory biannual fit-for-duty medical examinations of seafarers; 2) to produce data driven “Green Ship” health pro­motion in the ships. A new health promotion and disease prevention public health intervention programme integrated in the fit-for-duty medical examinations for seafarers is being developed. Materials and methods: The lack of an accurate diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is replaced by accurate HbA1c and/or fasting glucose tests and the test for hypertension in various disease stages is based on the International Associations’ Guidelines. A “Green Ship” health promotion programme is proposed for all on board, not only for diseased crew members. Results: A protocol for an accurate biannual screening for diabetes and hypertension is presented. Educational programmes for medical doctors and seafarers on the management of hypertension and diabetes on board will be developed. Presuming that all crew members are potentially on their way to be pre-diseased or are diseased, the “Green Ship” health promotion programme is implemented for the whole crew. Conclusions: The International Labour Organization and the National Maritime Authorities are prompted to revise the International and the National Guidelines for Seafarers Medical Examinations, respectively. Con­certed actions are requested to implement public health promotion projects in shipping. Maritime medical doctors are prompted to use health dialogues and to report the clinical data in the Excel file. Sustainability is obtained by complying with the Sustainable Development Goals (3, 4, 8, 10, and 17).

Abstract

Background: The aims of the study are: 1) to replace the urine glucose test for diabetes with more than 50% false negatives, with an accurate screening for type 2 diabetes and hypertension in the mandatory biannual fit-for-duty medical examinations of seafarers; 2) to produce data driven “Green Ship” health pro­motion in the ships. A new health promotion and disease prevention public health intervention programme integrated in the fit-for-duty medical examinations for seafarers is being developed. Materials and methods: The lack of an accurate diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is replaced by accurate HbA1c and/or fasting glucose tests and the test for hypertension in various disease stages is based on the International Associations’ Guidelines. A “Green Ship” health promotion programme is proposed for all on board, not only for diseased crew members. Results: A protocol for an accurate biannual screening for diabetes and hypertension is presented. Educational programmes for medical doctors and seafarers on the management of hypertension and diabetes on board will be developed. Presuming that all crew members are potentially on their way to be pre-diseased or are diseased, the “Green Ship” health promotion programme is implemented for the whole crew. Conclusions: The International Labour Organization and the National Maritime Authorities are prompted to revise the International and the National Guidelines for Seafarers Medical Examinations, respectively. Con­certed actions are requested to implement public health promotion projects in shipping. Maritime medical doctors are prompted to use health dialogues and to report the clinical data in the Excel file. Sustainability is obtained by complying with the Sustainable Development Goals (3, 4, 8, 10, and 17).

Get Citation

Keywords

type 2 diabetes, hypertension, seafarers, fishermen, screening, early diagnosis, metabolic syndrome

About this article
Title

Screening for type 2 diabetes and hypertension in seafarers’ medical examinations

Journal

International Maritime Health

Issue

Vol 73, No 2 (2022)

Article type

Original article

Pages

64-72

Published online

2022-06-29

Page views

4914

Article views/downloads

782

DOI

10.5603/IMH.2022.0010

Pubmed

35781681

Bibliographic record

IMH 2022;73(2):64-72.

Keywords

type 2 diabetes
hypertension
seafarers
fishermen
screening
early diagnosis
metabolic syndrome

Authors

Olaf Chresten Jensen
Agnes Flores
Victoria Corman
Maria Luisa Canals
David Lucas
Ilona Denisenko
Don Eliseo-III Lucero-Prisno
Anna Lilja Secher
Gregers Stig Andersen
Marit Eika Jørgensen
Helena Estopà Pujol
Guido Cohen
Finn Gyntelberg

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