Vol 73, No 4 (2022)
Original article
Published online: 2022-12-28

open access

Page views 3461
Article views/downloads 446
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Examining trainees’ success in Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training (BOSIET) on the basis of their anxiety levels

Hasan Bora Usluer1, Cenk Ay2, Buse Babaoğlu Ay3
Pubmed: 36583409
IMH 2022;73(4):213-222.


Background: A descriptive study was designed to determine the relationship between the anxiety levels of offshore workers participating in the Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training (BOSIET) and their success in the training and to examine the potential factors affecting anxiety.

Materials and methods: The trainees’ state-anxiety values were determined using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Form TX-1 before and after each exercise, and trait-anxiety values were determined using TX-2 after all exercises had been completed.

Results: Among 276 trainees, female (n = 17), non-swimmers (n = 22) and younger trainees (median age: 35 [32–41]) had higher state-anxiety levels. The most anxiety-provoking and the most unsuccessful parts of the training were helicopter escape, the use of Compressed Air Emergency Breathing System (CA-EBS), and sea survival, respectively. After the CA-EBS exercise, where failure was seen for the first time, the anxiety level of those who failed increased.

Conclusions: The post-exercise state-anxiety scores of the unsuccessful ones were higher than those of the successful ones.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. McNamara R, Smith A. Combined effects of fatigue indicators on the health and wellbeing of workers in the offshore oil industry. J Health Med Sci. 2020; 3(3).
  2. Gibson Smith K, Paudyal V, Quinn F, et al. Offshore workers and health behaviour change: an exploration using the theoretical domains framework. Int Marit Health. 2018; 69(4): 248–256.
  3. Cao Yu, Liu A, Chen M, et al. Safety analysis of an offshore platform for leakage and deflagration accidents from adjacent oil and gas storage and transportation units. Ships and Offshore Structures. 2020; 16(8): 815–826.
  4. Rozuhan H, Muhammad M, Niazi U. Probabilistic risk assessment of offshore installation hydrocarbon releases leading to fire and explosion, incorporating system and human reliability analysis. Applied Ocean Research. 2020; 101: 102282.
  5. Yang D, Chen G, Shi J, et al. A novel approach for hazardous area identification of toxic gas leakage accidents on offshore facilities. Ocean Engineering. 2020; 217: 107926.
  6. Sühring R, Cousins A, Gregory L, et al. The past, present, and future of the regulation of offshore chemicals in the North Sea — a United Kingdom perspective. ICES J Marine Science. 2019; 77(3): 1157–1166.
  7. Bastos ILM, Faria MGA, Koopmans FF, et al. Risks, injuries, and illnesses among professionals working on offshore platforms: an integrative review. Rev Eletr Enferm. 2020(22): 64766.
  8. Santos IL, França J, Santos L, et al. Allocation of performance shaping factors in the risk assessment of an offshore installation. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2020; 64: 104085.
  9. Greenfield EK, Nelson KE. Worker Safety in Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act. United States Attorneys’ Bulletin [Internet]. 2020. https://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/usab68&id=394&div=&collection= (cited 2021 May 4).
  10. Taber MJ. Handbook of offshore helicopter transport safety: essentials of underwater egress and survival. Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier 2015.
  11. OPITO. About OPITO Standards [Internet]. OPITO | Safety, Skills & Competence Standards for Oil & Gas. https://www.opito.com/standards-and-qualifications/about-opito-standards (cited 2021 May 2).
  12. Flin R, Slaven G, Stewart K. Emergency decision making in the offshore oil and gas industry. Human Factors. 2016; 38(2): 262–277.
  13. OPITO. What We Do [Internet]. OPITO | Safety Training Standards, Skills and Competence for Oil & Gas. https://www.opito.com/about-us/what-we-do (cited 2021 May 2).
  14. Skiba A. Building and Implementing Global Offshore Safety Training Standards. Paper presented at the ASSE Professional Development Conference and Exposition. OnePetro, Las Vegas, Nevada USA 2013.
  15. OPITO. Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training (with Compressed Air Emergency Breathing System) – [OPITO STCW95/2010 Conversion] [Internet]. OPITO Standard Code: 5753. 2021. https://www.opito.com/standards/basic-offshore-safety-induction-and-emergency-training-with-compressed-air-emergency-breathing-system-opito-stcw95-2010-conversion (cited 2021 May 2).
  16. Lee CW. A study on the effect analysis and improvement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on life-rafts. J Korean Society of Marine Environment and Safety. 2019; 25(4): 433–440.
  17. OPITO. Current Standard-BOSIET/HUET/FOET with CA-EBS Rev 0 Amendment 9 [Internet]. 2020. https://downloads.opito.com/downloads/Standards/basic-emergency-response/BOSIET-with-CA-EBS-HUET-with-CA-EBS-and-FOET-with-CA-EBS-Rev-0-Amendment-9-January-2020.pdf?mtime=20200513021940&focal=none (cited 2021 May 4).
  18. Coleshaw SRK. Stress Levels Associated with HUET: The Implications of Higher Fidelity Training Using Exits [Internet]. OPITO Confidential Report SC 155. 2006. https://downloads.opito.com/downloads/stress-levels-associated-with-huet-the-implications-of-higher-fidelity-training-using-exits.pdf?mtime=20181122165326&focal=none (cited 2021 May 5).
  19. Mills AM, Muir H. Development of a standard for underwater survival. Cranfield University Report prepared for Shell Aircraft 1999.
  20. Taber M. Offshore Helicopter Safety Report. [Internet]. 2010. http://www.oshsi.nl.ca/userfiles/files/Exhibit%20P-00216%20Michael%20Taber%20-%20Offshore%20Helicopter%20Safety%20Report%202010.pdf (cited 2021 May 5).
  21. Taber M, McCabe J. An examination of survival rates based on external flotation devices: a helicopter ditching review from 1971 to 2005. SAFE J [Internet]. 2007. https://www.safetylit.org/citations/index.php?fuseaction=citations.viewdetails&citationIds[]=citjournalarticle_70476_36 (cited 2021 May 5).
  22. Taber M. Simulation fidelity and contextual interference in helicopter underwater egress training: An analysis of training and retention of egress skills. Safety Science. 2014; 62: 271–278.
  23. Hochmitz I, Yuviler-Gavish N. Physical fidelity versus cognitive fidelity training in procedural skills acquisition. Hum Factors. 2011; 53(5): 489–501.
  24. Mills AM, Muir H. Executive Summary Final Report Development of a Training Standard for Underwater Survival. Bedford 1999.
  25. Taber M. Crash attenuating seats: effects on helicopter underwater escape performance. Safety Science. 2013; 57: 179–186.
  26. Taber M, McGarr G. Confidence in future helicopter underwater egress performance: an examination of training standards. Safety Science. 2013; 60: 169–175.
  27. Hussin M, Wang B, Hipnie R. The reliability and validity of Basic Offshore Safety and Emergency Training knowledge test. Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences. 2012; 24(2): 95–105.
  28. Brooks CJ, MacDonald CV, Gibbs PNA. Injury rate in a helicopter underwater escape trainer (HUET) from 2005-2012. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014; 85(8): 857–862.
  29. Hussin MF, Jusoh MH, Sulaiman AA, et al. mproved water entry technique in basic offshore safety and emergency training. Adv Environ Biol. 2015; 9(27): 187–192.
  30. Sielberger CD. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The Corsini Encycloedia of Psychology [Internet]. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0943 (cited 2021 May 6).
  31. IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Macintosh, Version 27.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp [Internet]. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp; 2020. https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/how-cite-ibm-spss-statistics-or-earlier-versions-spss (cited 2021 Apr 11).
  32. Spielberger CD. State-trait anxiety inventory for adults. (STAI-AD) [Database record] APA PsycTests [Internet]. 1983. https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037/t06496-000 (cited 2021 May 12).
  33. Gürpınar B, Kumral T, Tutar B, et al. Impact of canalith repositioning maneuver with or without vestibular suppressant therapy on anxiety levels among patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Eur Arch Med Res. 2020; 36(4): 267–271.
  34. Çağlar A, Kaçer İ. Anxiety levels in patients admitted to the emergency department with myocardial infarction or COVID-19 pneumonia. Psychol Health Med. 2022; 27(1): 228–236.
  35. Mutlu H, Sert E, Kokulu K, et al. Anxiety level in pre-hospital emergency medical services personnel during coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Eurasian J Emerg Med. 2021; 20(1): 43–48.
  36. Öner N, le Compte A. Süreksiz Durumluk / Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri El Kitabı. 1. Baskı. İstanbul, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları; 1983.
  37. Jalnapurkar I, Allen M, Pigott T. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: a review. J Psychiatry Depress Anxiety. 2018; 4.
  38. Saeed H, Eslami A, Nassif NT, et al. Anxiety Linked to COVID-19: A Systematic Review Comparing Anxiety Rates in Different Populations. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022; 19(4): 2189.
  39. Torquati L, Mielke GI, Brown WJ, et al. Shift work and poor mental health: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Am J Public Health. 2019; 109(11): e13–e20.
  40. Murphy K, Strand L, Theron L, et al. “I just gotta have tough skin”: Women's experiences working in the oil and gas industry in Canada. Extr Ind Soc. 2021; 8(2): 100882.
  41. Pike K, Wadsworth E, Honebon S, et al. Gender in the maritime space: how can the experiences of women seafarers working in the UK shipping industry be improved? J Navigation. 2021; 74(6): 1238–1251.
  42. Barreiro-Gen M, Lozano R, Temel M, et al. Gender equality for sustainability in ports: Developing a framework. Marine Policy. 2021; 131: 104593.
  43. McLaughlin H, Fearon C. Closing the gender gap in the maritime industry: a career-decision approach. Women, Work and Transport. 2022: 265–278.
  44. Khatchaturian R, Stillwell B. Swimming Without Fear: Equitable Instruction. Int J Aquatic Research Education. 2022; 13(4).
  45. Shaheen WM. Impact Of Crippling Anxiety On The Learning Of Non-Swimming Students In The Department Of Physical Education At Birzeit University. Journal Positive School Psychology. 2022; 6(6): 771–784.
  46. Misimi F, Kajtna T, Misimi S, et al. Development and validity of the fear of water assessment questionnaire. Front Psychol. 2020; 11: 969.
  47. Stillwell B, Khatchaturian R. Teaching strategies for beginning high school students afraid in water. J Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 2020; 91(4): 30–39.
  48. Rice SM, Gwyther K, Santesteban-Echarri O, et al. Determinants of anxiety in elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2019; 53(11): 722–730.
  49. Karabulut EO, Mavi-Var S. Taekwondocuların Durumluk ve Sürekli Kaygılarının Müsabaka Performansı ve Yaralanma Durumu ile İlişkisi. The Journal of Turkish Sport Science [Internet]. 2019. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tsbd/536907 (cited 2021 Nov 23).
  50. Li X, Seah R, Wang X, et al. Investigating the role of sociotechnical factors on seafarers’ psychological capital and mental well-being. Technol Soc. 2022; 71: 102138.
  51. Dilek TD, Boybay Z, Kologlu N, et al. The impact of SARS-CoV2 on the anxiety levels of subjects and on the anxiety and depression levels of their parents. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2021; 47: 102595.
  52. Eroglu CN, Ataoğlu H, Küçük K. Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017; 20(4): 409–414.
  53. Morgan W, Ellickson K. Health, anxiety, and physical exercise. Anxiety in Sports. 2021: 165–182.
  54. Edgar M, Franco MA, Dainer HM. Case Series of Arterial Gas Embolism Incidents in U.S. Navy Pressurized Submarine Escape Training From 2018 to 2019. Mil Med. 2021; 186(5-6): e613–e618.
  55. Van Wijk CH. Psychological considerations in submarine escape training: brief overview and future directions. Int Marit Health. 2017; 68(3): 168–173.
  56. Trousselard M, Cian C, Barraud PA, et al. Physiological and psychological effects of escape from a sunken submarine on shore and at sea. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009; 80(10): 850–856.
  57. Wang CM, Hong JC, Ye JH, et al. The relationship among gameplay self-efficacy, competition anxiety, and the performance of eSports players. Entertainment Computing. 2022; 42: 100489.
  58. Casey T, Turner N, Hu X, et al. Making safety training stickier: A richer model of safety training engagement and transfer. J Safety Res. 2021; 78: 303–313.