Vol 72, No 4 (2021)
Original article
Published online: 2021-12-30

open access

Page views 7175
Article views/downloads 673
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

First report of the presence of Vibrio vulnificus in the Gulf of Gdansk

Monika Kurpas1, Małgorzata Michalska1, Arkadiusz Zakrzewski2, Katarzyna Zorena1
Pubmed: 35147210
IMH 2021;72(4):247-251.

Abstract

Background: Vibrio infections are becoming more frequent in the Baltic Sea region, which is caused by an increase in the sea surface temperature. Climate change creates the conditions for the emergence of new environmental niches that are beneficial for Vibrio spp., especially in the summer months. Vibrio vulnificus, which causes wound infections and septicaemia, represents a particularly dangerous species of Vibrio spp. There are numerous publications on the prevalence of V. vulnificus in various regions of the Baltic Sea, but there is a lack of such data for the Polish coast. This prompted us to conduct a pilot study into the prevalence of the bacteria in the Gulf of Gdansk. The study aimed to detect Vibrio spp. in the coastal waters and the wet sand at the beaches and bathing areas in the Gulf of Gdansk.
Materials and methods: During the period from June 16th to September 23rd 2020, 112 samples of seawater and 105 samples of wet sand were collected at 16 locations along the coast of the Gulf of Gdansk and Hel peninsula. Isolation of Vibrio spp. was conducted by filtering method and the isolated bacteria was cultured on CHROM agar Vibrio and TCBS agar. Final genus identification was performed by the MALDI TOF technique.
Results: In the present study, 10 isolates of Vibrio spp. were obtained from seawater and wet sand samples collected in the Gulf of Gdansk and Hel peninsula coast. Three of the isolates were identified as V. vulnificus; the presence of the species was confirmed in the seawater samples which had been collected in Hel (1 isolate), Jastarnia (1 isolate), and Chalupy (1 isolate). One strain of Vibrio alginolyticus was isolated from the seawater sample collected in Hel. Moreover, identification was incomplete for 6 of the isolated strains, these were identified as Vibrio cholerae/mimicus These strains were collected in Jastarnia (1 isolate), Kuznica (1 isolate), Gdansk-Brzezno (1 isolate), Puck (2 isolates), Chalupy (1 isolate).
Conclusions: Our preliminary research study confirmed the presence of potentially pathogenic V. vulnificus in the Gulf of Gdansk in the summer months. Therefore, further monitoring of the presence of Vibrio spp. in the Baltic coast area is necessary.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Mahechwari M, Nelapati K. Kiranmayi, B. Vibrio choleare – A review; Veterinry World. 2011; 4: 423–428.
  2. Baker-Austin C, Trinanes J, Taylor NGH. Emerging Vibrio risk at high latitudes in response to ocean warming. Nature Reports Climate Change. 2012: 1–5.
  3. Tamplin M. Coastal Vibrios: Identifying Relationships between Environmental Condition and Human Disease. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 2012; 7(5): 1437–1445.
  4. Böer SI, Heinemeyer EA, Luden K, et al. Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. at recreational beaches of the German north sea. Microb Ecol. 2013; 65(4): 1052–1067.
  5. Semenza JC, Trinanes J, Lohr W, et al. Environmental suitability of infections in a warming climate: an early warning system. Environ Health Perspect. 2017; 125(10): 107004.
  6. Vezzulli L, Pezzati E, Brettar I. Effects of global warming on Vibrio ecolog. Microbiology Spectrum – American Society for Microbiology Press. 2015: 1–9.
  7. Siegel H, Gerth M (2018) Development of Sea Surface Temperature in the Baltic Sea in 2018. HELCOM Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheets 2019. https://helcom.fi/baltic-sea-trends/environment-fact-sheets/hydrography/sea-surface-temperature-in-the-baltic-sea-in-2018/.
  8. Couper AD, Mutton AFA (2019) Baltic Sea, Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Baltic-Sea/Coastal-features.
  9. Frank C, Littman M, Alpers A, et al. Vibrio vulnificus wound infections after contact with the Baltic Sea, Germany. Eurosurveillance. 2006; 11: 33.
  10. Andersson Y, Ekdahl K. Wound infections due to Vibrio cholerae in Sweden after swimming in the Baltic Sea, summer 2006. Euro Surveill. 2006; 11(8): E060803.2.
  11. Michalska M, Królska M. Surface distribution of the coliform bacteria in the Gdańsk Bay. Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia. 1995: 46.
  12. Ostrowska M, Darecki M, Krężel A, et al. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic environmental satellite remote sensing system (Satbałtyk). Polish Maritime Research. 2015; 22(3): 43–49.
  13. Oliver J, Jones J. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Chapter 66. Molecular Medical Microbiology. 2015; 2: 1169–1186.
  14. Hounmanou YMG, Leekitcharoenphon P, Hendriksen RS, et al. Surveillance and genomics of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from fich, phytoplankton and water in Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2019; 10(901): 1–15.
  15. Gyraite G, Katarzyte M, Schernewski G. First findings of potentially human pathogenic bacteria Vibrio in the south-eastern Baltic Sea coastal and transitional bathing waters. Mar Pollut Bull. 2019; 149: 110546.
  16. Eiler A, Johansson M, Bertillsson S. Environmental influences on Vibrio population in Northern temperature and boreal coastal waters (Baltic and Skagerrak Seas). Applied Environ Microbiol. 2006; 72: 6004–6011.
  17. Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz H, Stasiak J, Janczyk M. Vibrio cholerae non-01 isolated in Poland from the river Bug. Przegląd Epidemiologiczny. 1995; 49(3): 237–243.
  18. Lukinmaa S, Mattila K, Lehtinen V, et al. Territorial waters of the Baltic Sea as a source of infections caused by Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139: report of 3 hospitalized cases. Diag Microbiol Inf Dis. 2006; 54(1): 1–6.
  19. Ruppert J, Panzing B, Guertler L. Two cases of severe sepsis due to Vibrio vulnificus wound infection acquired in the Baltic Sea. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004; 23: 912–915.
  20. Stypulkowska-Misiurewicz H, Pancer K, Roszkowiak A. Two unrelated cases of septicaemia due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 in Poland, July and August 2006. Euro Surveill. 2006; 11(11): E061130.2.