open access

Vol 71, No 3 (2020)
Review article
Published online: 2020-09-28
Submitted: 2020-05-05
Accepted: 2020-08-03
Get Citation

Sexually transmitted infections in seafarers: 2020’s perspectives based on a literature review from 2000–2020

Richard Pougnet, Laurence Pougnet, Jean-Dominique Dewitte, Claire Rousseau, Greta Gourrier, David Lucas, Brice Loddé
DOI: 10.5603/IMH.2020.0030
·
Pubmed: 33001427
·
International Maritime Health 2020;71(3):166-173.

open access

Vol 71, No 3 (2020)
MARITIME MEDICINE Review article
Published online: 2020-09-28
Submitted: 2020-05-05
Accepted: 2020-08-03

Abstract

Background: Seafarers are a special population. The issue of sexually transmitted diseases among seafarers is as old as navigation itself, and is a public health issue and a matter of concern for seafarers themselves. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in professional seafarers in the 21st century, with a view to guiding maritime physicians in their practice.
Materials and methods: This is a Medline® and Scopus® literature review covering publications between 01/01/2000 and 31/12/2019. Out of the 224 articles, 26 were selected. Results: This review showed that at the beginning of the 21st century, attention has been focused mainly on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Few seroprevalence data were available. Between 10% and 91% of seafarers had been tested for STIs. Several risk behaviours were identified: out of 4022 seafarers surveyed, 34.3% said they had several sexual partners; out of 3722 seafarers surveyed, 19.5% engaged with sex workers; out of 3493 seafarers surveyed, 63.3% did not always use condoms, while 58.0% were aware of the relevance of this protection. There was a lot of misunderstanding about STIs: 28.3% of seafarers believed that a healthy-looking person could not be HIV-positive.
Conclusions: The main pathology studied was HIV. Many seafarers had no specific training and only learned about STIs and HIV through media such as television. Maritime doctors could use new technologies to disseminate the right information on STI prevention.

Abstract

Background: Seafarers are a special population. The issue of sexually transmitted diseases among seafarers is as old as navigation itself, and is a public health issue and a matter of concern for seafarers themselves. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in professional seafarers in the 21st century, with a view to guiding maritime physicians in their practice.
Materials and methods: This is a Medline® and Scopus® literature review covering publications between 01/01/2000 and 31/12/2019. Out of the 224 articles, 26 were selected. Results: This review showed that at the beginning of the 21st century, attention has been focused mainly on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Few seroprevalence data were available. Between 10% and 91% of seafarers had been tested for STIs. Several risk behaviours were identified: out of 4022 seafarers surveyed, 34.3% said they had several sexual partners; out of 3722 seafarers surveyed, 19.5% engaged with sex workers; out of 3493 seafarers surveyed, 63.3% did not always use condoms, while 58.0% were aware of the relevance of this protection. There was a lot of misunderstanding about STIs: 28.3% of seafarers believed that a healthy-looking person could not be HIV-positive.
Conclusions: The main pathology studied was HIV. Many seafarers had no specific training and only learned about STIs and HIV through media such as television. Maritime doctors could use new technologies to disseminate the right information on STI prevention.

Get Citation

Keywords

sexually transmitted diseases, seafarer, HIV-positive

About this article
Title

Sexually transmitted infections in seafarers: 2020’s perspectives based on a literature review from 2000–2020

Journal

International Maritime Health

Issue

Vol 71, No 3 (2020)

Article type

Review article

Pages

166-173

Published online

2020-09-28

DOI

10.5603/IMH.2020.0030

Pubmed

33001427

Bibliographic record

International Maritime Health 2020;71(3):166-173.

Keywords

sexually transmitted diseases
seafarer
HIV-positive

Authors

Richard Pougnet
Laurence Pougnet
Jean-Dominique Dewitte
Claire Rousseau
Greta Gourrier
David Lucas
Brice Loddé

References (50)
  1. Koren ES. [The health of sailors--at sea and in port towns]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2007; 127(24): 3259–3263.
  2. Mant M. For those in peril on and off the sea: Merchant marine bodies in nineteenth-century St. John’s, Newfoundland. Int J Marit Hist. 2020; 32(1): 23–44.
  3. Ramos Gegorio E. The Filipino seafarers' lived experiences aboard international shipping vessels: A basis for health promotion intervention. Acta Medica Philippina. 2012; 46(3): 69–74.
  4. Sopheab H, Fylkesnes K, Vun MC, et al. HIV-related risk behaviors in Cambodia and effects of mobility. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006; 41(1): 81–86.
  5. Schofield CB. Veneral disease imported by mariners. Br J Vener Dis. 1965; 41: 51–59.
  6. Korzeniewski K, Konior M, Lass A, et al. Occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis in military environment on the example of professional soldiers in the Polish Armed Forces. Int Marit Health. 2014; 65(3): 137–141.
  7. Pougnet L, Pougnet R, Drouillard I. Commentary to the article by Korzeniewski et al. Int Marit Health. 2014; 65(4): 235.
  8. Mulić R, Vidan P, Polak NK. HIV infection among seafarers in Croatia. Int Marit Health. 2010; 62(4): 209–214.
  9. den Hoed W. Morbidity among international seafarers examined at the Port Health Centre in Rotterdam in the years 1999 and 2000. Int Marit Health. 2002; 53(1-4): 167–171.
  10. Nikolić N. AIDS prophylaxis--achievements due to appropriate strategies. Int Marit Health. 2011; 62(3): 176–182.
  11. Michalopoulos LM, Jiwatram-Negrón T, Choo MKK, et al. The association between psychosocial and structural-level stressors and HIV injection drug risk behavior among Malaysian fishermen: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16: 464.
  12. Mack N, Odhiambo J, Wong CM, et al. Barriers and facilitators to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) eligibility screening and ongoing HIV testing among target populations in Bondo and Rarieda, Kenya: results of a consultation with community stakeholders. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014; 14: 231.
  13. Camlin CS, Kwena ZA, Dworkin SL. Jaboya vs. jakambi: Status, negotiation, and HIV risks among female migrants in the "sex for fish" economy in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Educ Prev. 2013; 25(3): 216–231.
  14. Laraqui S, Laraqui O, Manar N, et al. The assessment of seafarers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to STI/HIV/AIDS in northern Morocco. Int Marit Health. 2017; 68(1): 26–30.
  15. Acaroglu R. Knowledge and attitudes of mariners about AIDS in Turkey. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2007; 18(1): 48–55.
  16. Guevara N, Pineda M, Dorotan M, et al. Cross-sectional survey on the knowledge, attitude and practice of male Filipino seafarers on sexual health. Int Marit Health. 2010; 62(4): 224–232.
  17. Ramirez-Piedad MK, Lepej SZ, Yerly S, et al. High prevalence of non-B HIV-1 subtypes in seamen and their sexual partners in Croatia. J Med Virol. 2009; 81(4): 573–577.
  18. Nguyen CH, Ishizaki A, Chung PT, et al. Prevalence of HBV infection among different HIV-risk groups in Hai Phong, Vietnam. J Med Virol. 2011; 83(3): 399–404.
  19. Ishizaki A, Cuong NH, Thuc PV, et al. Profile of HIV type 1 infection and genotypic resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive HIV type 1-infected individuals in Hai Phong, Viet Nam. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009; 25(2): 175–182.
  20. Samnang Po, Leng HB, Kim A, et al. HIV prevalence and risk factors among fishermen in Sihanouk Ville, Cambodia. Int J STD AIDS. 2004; 15(7): 479–483.
  21. Ousley J, Nesbitt R, Kyaw NT, et al. Increased hepatitis C virus co-infection and injection drug use in HIV-infected fishermen in Myanmar. BMC Infect Dis. 2018; 18(1): 657.
  22. Choo MKK, El-Bassel N, Adam PCG, et al. Prevalence and correlates of HIV and hepatitis c virus infections and risk behaviors among malaysian fishermen. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8): e0118422.
  23. López-Balderas N, Hernández-Romano J, Cámara-Contreras M, et al. Trends in prevalence of HIV and syphilis in a central blood bank of Veracruz, Mexico. Transfus Apher Sci. 2019; 58(1): 94–99.
  24. Katusiime C, Schlech WF, Parkes-Ratanshi R, et al. Characteristics of Sexually Transmitted Infections among High-Risk HIV-Positive Patients Attending an Urban Clinic in Uganda. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2016; 15(1): 36–41.
  25. Altaf Chowdhury SA, Smith J, Trowsdale S, et al. HIV/AIDS, health and wellbeing study among International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) seafarer affiliates. Int Marit Health. 2016; 67(1): 42–50.
  26. Grappasonni I, Paci P, Mazzucchi F, et al. Survey on HIV risk perception and sexual behaviours among seafarers. Int Marit Health. 2011; 62(2): 131–137.
  27. Saniel OP, De los Reyes SJ. Prevalence of risky behaviours and determinants of multiple sex partnerships among male Filipino seafarers. Int Marit Health. 2010; 62(4): 215–223.
  28. Robate M, Toatu T, Kirition R, et al. Sexual behaviour of Kiribati seafarers: second generation surveillance in 2005 and 2008. Int Marit Health. 2010; 62(4): 195–200.
  29. Ford K, Chamrathrithirong A. Sexual partners and condom use of migrant workers in Thailand. AIDS Behav. 2007; 11(6): 905–914.
  30. Soldan VA, deGraft-Johnson JE, Bisika T, et al. Social, economic and demographic determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men in rural Malawi: A district-level study. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007; 11(2): 33–46.
  31. Zafar M, Nisar N, Kadir M, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14: 437.
  32. Dahl E. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) testing and prevention in the cruise industry. Int Marit Health. 2011; 62(1): 3–7.
  33. Entz AT, Ruffolo VP, Chinveschakitvanich V, et al. HIV-1 prevalence, HIV-1 subtypes and risk factors among fishermen in the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. AIDS. 2000; 14(8): 1027–1034.
  34. Entz A, Prachuabmoh V, van Griensven F, et al. STD history, self treatment, and healthcare behaviours among fishermen in the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. Sex Transm Infect. 2001; 77(6): 436–440.
  35. Setiawan IM, Patten JH. The organization of STI/HIV risk-taking among long-line fishermen in Bali, Indonesia. Int Marit Health. 2010; 62(4): 201–208.
  36. Bailey A. Left at sea: HIV vulnerability among migrant fishermen in Goa, India. Int Marit Health. 2011; 62(2): 116–122.
  37. Faye A, Faye MD, Leye MM, et al. Knowledge and attitudes of Senegalese seafarers about HIV/AIDS. Int Marit Health. 2013; 64(3): 148–153.
  38. Stulhofer A, Brouillard P, Nikolić N, et al. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers. Coll Antropol. 2006; 30 Suppl 2: 105–114.
  39. Seeley JA, Allison EH. HIV/AIDS in fishing communities: challenges to delivering antiretroviral therapy to vulnerable groups. AIDS Care. 2005; 17(6): 688–697.
  40. Ombere SO, Nyambedha EO, Bukachi SA. Wimbo: implications for risk of HIV infection among circumcised fishermen in Western Kenya. Cult Health Sex. 2015; 17(9): 1147–1154.
  41. Choko AT, Nanfuka M, Birungi J, et al. A pilot trial of the peer-based distribution of HIV self-test kits among fishermen in Bulisa, Uganda. PLoS One. 2018; 13(11): e0208191.
  42. Kiene SM, Sileo KM, Dove M, et al. Hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are associated with unknown and HIV-positive status in fishing communities in Uganda. AIDS Care. 2019; 31(4): 451–459.
  43. Sileo KM, Kizito W, Wanyenze RK, et al. A qualitative study on alcohol consumption and HIV treatment adherence among men living with HIV in Ugandan fishing communities. AIDS Care. 2019; 31(1): 35–40.
  44. Sileo KM, Wanyenze RK, Kizito W, et al. Multi-level Determinants of Clinic Attendance and Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Among Fishermen Living with HIV/AIDS in Communities on Lake Victoria, Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2019; 23(2): 406–417.
  45. MacPherson EE, Sadalaki J, Njoloma M, et al. Transactional sex and HIV: understanding the gendered structural drivers of HIV in fishing communities in Southern Malawi. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012; 15 Suppl 1: 1–9.
  46. Mullany LC, Maung C, Beyrer C. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Burmese migrant factory workers in Tak Province, Thailand. AIDS Care. 2003; 15(1): 63–70.
  47. Vignier N. Profils de santé des migrants en France [The faces of migrant health in France]. Rev Prat 2019;69(5. 2019; 69(5): 555–560.
  48. Fuller TD, Chamratrithirong A. Knowledge of HIV risk factors among immigrants in Thailand. J Immigr Minor Health. 2009; 11(2): 83–91.
  49. Ford K, Chamratrithirong A, Apipornchaisakul K, et al. Social integration, AIDS knowledge and factors related to HIV prevention among migrant workers in Thailand. AIDS Behav. 2014; 18(2): 390–397.
  50. Wagner KS, Lawrence J, Anderson L, et al. Migrant health and infectious diseases in the UK: findings from the last 10 years of surveillance. J Public Health (Oxf). 2014; 36(1): 28–35.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl