Błąd cURL: Failed connect to www.viamedica.pl:443; No route to host
Vol 71, No 1 (2020)
Review article
Published online: 2020-03-21

open access

Page views 1080
Article views/downloads 778
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Follow-up of citations of maritime epidemiological injury studies

Olaf Chresten Jensen123, Agnes Flores4, Fereshteh Baygi1, Despena Andrioti Bygvraa1, George Charalambous2
Pubmed: 32212150
IMH 2020;71(1):62-70.


Background: The article is based on a review and follow-up of the citations of 13 epidemiological studies that aimed to improve maritime health and safety. While it’s well-recognised that epidemiology is needed in occupational health and safety, the main research question: “How can epidemiology help workers to return healthy from the sea” was unanswered.

Materials and methods: The 13 articles were selected as a representative sample of different epidemiological design studies intended to contribute to improving safety management in fishing, merchant shipping and offshore industry. The PubMed, Research Gate, Cochrane-Library and Google Scholar were searched for authors that had cited our articles by using full bibliographic information and the results analysed.

Results: In all, 213 citation records were identified. After duplicates and records with insufficient information were removed, 123 full-text articles were eligible for evaluation with answers to the research questions: how did other authors use the studies, how has the injury epidemiology been developed, which recommendations are given for new policies and new studies and how can epidemiology help workers return safe and healthy from the sea?

Conclusions: The answer to the main research question is yes, epidemiological studies are not only useful but a necessary component by providing the needed evidence for successful prevention programmes.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Petursdottir G. Safety at sea as an integral part of fisheries management. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 966 FIIT/C966 ISSN 0429-9329. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/003/x9656e/x9656e00.pdf (Accessed March 17, 2014).
  2. Langley JD. The need to discontinue the use of the term "accident" when referring to unintentional injury events. Accid Anal Prev. 1988; 20(1): 1–8.
  3. Jensen OC. Mortality in Danish fishermen. Bull Inst Marit Trop Med Gdynia. 1996; 47(1-4): 5–10.
  4. Mikoczy Z, Rylander L. Mortality and cancer incidence in cohorts of Swedish fishermen and fishermen's wives: updated findings. Chemosphere. 2009; 74(7): 938–943.
  5. Turunen AW, Verkasalo PK, Kiviranta H, et al. Mortality in a cohort with high fish consumption. Int J Epidemiol. 2008; 37(5): 1008–1017.
  6. Jensen OCC, Petursdottir G, Holmen IM, et al. A review of fatal accident incidence rate trends in fishing. Int Marit Health. 2014; 65(2): 47–52.
  7. Jensen O, Laursen LHA. review of epidemiological injury studies in the oil-and gas offshore industry. Ann Public Health Res. 2014; 1(1): 1–4.
  8. Jensen OC, Stage S, Noer P. Classification and coding of commercial fishing injuries by work processes: an experience in the Danish fresh market fishing industry. Am J Ind Med. 2005; 47(6): 528–537.
  9. Jensen OC, Stage S, Noer P. Injury and time studies of working processes in fishing. Safety Science. 2006; 44(4): 349–358.
  10. Jensen OC. Injury risk at the work processes in fishing: a case-referent study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2006; 21(7): 521–527.
  11. Jensen OC, Sørensen JFL, Kaerlev L, et al. Self-reported injuries among seafarers. Questionnaire validity and results from an international study. Accid Anal Prev. 2004; 36(3): 405–413.
  12. Jensen OC, Sørensen JFL, Canals ML, et al. Subjective assessments of safety, exposure to chemicals and use of personal protection equipment in seafaring. Occup Med (Lond). 2005; 55(6): 454–458.
  13. Jensen OC. Non-fatal occupational fall and slip injuries among commercial fishermen analyzed by use of the NOMESCO injury registration system. Am J Ind Med. 2000; 37(6): 637–644, doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0274(200006)37:6<637::aid-ajim8>3.0.co;2-3.
  14. Committee NMS. NOMESCO Classification of External Causes of Injuries. Nordic Medico Statistical Committee, Copenhagen 1997.
  15. Jensen OC, Sørensen JFL, Canals ML, et al. Non-fatal occupational injuries related to slips, trips and falls in seafaring. Am J Ind Med. 2005; 47(2): 161–171.
  16. Dahl E. Passenger accidents and injuries reported during 3 years on a cruise ship. Int Marit Health. 2010; 61(1): 1–8.
  17. Roberts SE, Hansen HL. An analysis of the causes of mortality among seafarers in the British merchant fleet (1986-1995) and recommendations for their reduction. Occup Med (Lond). 2002; 52(4): 195–202.
  18. Jensen OC, Laursen LH. Reduction of slips, trips and falls and better comfort by using new anti-slipping boots in fishing. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2011; 18(1): 85–87.
  19. Jensen OC, Sørensen JFL, Thomas M, et al. Working conditions in international seafaring. Occup Med (Lond). 2006; 56(6): 393–397.
  20. Jensen OC, Lucero-Prisno DE, Haarløv E, et al. Social security for seafarers globally. Int Marit Health. 2013; 64(1): 30–35.
  21. Syron LN, Lucas DL, Bovbjerg VE, et al. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75: 30070.
  22. Krenz J, Spector MJ, Frenkel H. Development of a Surveillance Strategy to Guide Injury Prevention Efforts in the North Pacific Commercial Fishing Industry. 2014. http://deohs.washington.edu/pnash/sites/deohs.washington.edu.pnash/files/documents/Nonfatal_injury_fishing_final_15Jan2014.pdf (Accessed August 25, 2017).
  23. Lucas DL, Case SL. Work-related mortality in the US fishing industry during 2000-2014: New findings based on improved workforce exposure estimates. Am J Ind Med. 2018; 61(1): 21–31.
  24. McGuinness E, Aasjord H, Utne I, et al. Injuries in the commercial fishing fleet of Norway 2000–2011. Safety Science. 2013; 57: 82–99.
  25. Piniella F, Novalbos JP, Nogueroles PJ. Artisanal fishing in Andalusia (II): Safety and working conditions policy. Marine Policy. 2008; 32(4): 551–558.
  26. Shan D. Seafarers’ claims for compensation following workplace injuries and death in China. 2017. http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/97925 (Accessed August 25, 2017).
  27. Bull N, Riise T, Moen BE. Mechanisms of occupational injuries reported to insurance companies in Norway from 1991 to 1996. Am J Ind Med. 2001; 39(3): 312–319, doi: 10.1002/1097-0274(200103)39:3<312::aid-ajim1019>3.0.co;2-e.
  28. Österman C. Ergonomics: An Uncharted Route to Improved Overall Systems Performance in Shipping. Department of Shipping and Marine Technology, Chalmers University of Technology; 2010. http://www.san-nytt.se/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/asterman_ergonomics-an_uncharted_route_to_improved_overall_systems_performance_in_shipping-1.pdf (Accessed August 25, 2017).
  29. Mallam S, Lundh M. Ship Engine Control Room Design. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 2013; 57(1): 521–525.
  30. Lucas D, Lincoln J, Carozza S, et al. Predictors of personal flotation device (PFD) use among workers in the Alaska commercial fishing industry. Safety Science. 2013; 53: 177–185.
  31. Lucas DL, Kincl LD, Bovbjerg VE, et al. Work-related traumatic injuries onboard freezer-trawlers and freezer-longliners operating in Alaskan waters during 2001-2012. Am J Ind Med. 2014; 57(7): 826–836.
  32. Chander H, Garner J, Wade C. Heel contact dynamics in alternative footwear during slip events. Int J Ind Ergon. 2015; 48: 158–166.
  33. Ehrenstein V, Nielsen H, Pedersen AB, et al. Clinical epidemiology in the era of big data: new opportunities, familiar challenges. Clin Epidemiol. 2017; 9: 245–250.
  34. Jensen OC, Flores A, Bygvraa DA, et al. How to calculate incidence rates from proportionate data. Int Marit Health. 2019; 70(3): 187–192.
  35. Holland WW, Olsen J, Florey C du V. The Development of Modern Epidemiology: Personal Reports from Those Who Were There. Oxford University Press; 2007. https://www.google.com/books?hl=da&lr=&id=IfJxogL8IlAC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=the+development+of+modern+epidemiology:+personal+reports+from+those+who+were+there&ots=vUSEwleoyn&sig=S2xGfOebSd1X3db-WrHxJRa8lFU (Accessed October 3, 2017).
  36. Kaustell KO, Mattila TEA, Hurme T, et al. Occupational injuries and diseases among commercial fishers in Finland 1996-2015. Int Marit Health. 2016; 67(3): 163–170.
  37. Kaerlev L, Jensen A, Hannerz H. Surveillance of hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen with focus on skin and infectious diseases-a population-based cohort study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014; 11(11): 11931–11949.
  38. Carter T. Mapping the knowledge base for maritime health: 3 illness and injury in seafarers. Int Marit Health. 2011; 62(4): 224–240.
  39. Abaya AR, Roldan S, Ongchangco JC, et al. Repatriation rates in Filipino seafarers: a five-year study of 6,759 cases. Int Marit Health. 2015; 66(4): 189–195.
  40. Palella B, Quaranta F, Riccio G. On the management and prevention of heat stress for crews onboard ships. Ocean Engineering. 2016; 112: 277–286.
  41. Österman C, Hult C. Administrative burdens and over-exertion in Swedish short sea shipping. Marit Policy Manag. 2016; 43(5): 569–579.
  42. Oldenburg M, Jensen HJ, Wegner R. Burnout syndrome in seafarers in the merchant marine service. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013; 86(4): 407–416.
  43. Rydstedt LW, Lundh M. Work demands are related to mental health problems for older engine room officers. Int Marit Health. 2012; 63(4): 176–180.
  44. Oldenburg M, Jensen HJ. Merchant seafaring: a changing and hazardous occupation. Occup Environ Med. 2012; 69(9): 685–688.
  45. Brattberg J, Hulthén H. Tv\a akomponentsfärg till sjöss. http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/212719/212719.pdf (Accessed August 25, 2017).
  46. Andruškienė J, Barsevičienė Š, Varoneckas G. Poor sleep, anxiety, depression and other occupational health risks in seafaring population. Trans Nav Int J Mar Navig Saf Sea Transp. 2016; 10(1): 19–26.
  47. Oldenburg M, Harth V, Manuwald U, et al. Hospitalization due to cancer among German seafarers. Am J Ind Med. 2015; 58(4): 456–463.
  48. Fulmer S, Buchholz B. Ergonomic exposure case studies in Massachusetts fishing vessels. Am J Ind Med. 2002; Suppl 2: 10–18.
  49. WHO. Controlling the global obesity epidemic. http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/obesity/en/ (Accessed December 19, 2015).
  50. Jensen O, Flores A, Bygvraa DA, et al. A Review of Epidemiological Studies in Latin American Fishing. J Agromedicine. 2019; 24(4): 341–350.
Błąd cURL: Failed connect to www.viamedica.pl:443; No route to host