open access

Vol 94, No 1 (2023)
Review paper
Published online: 2022-11-25
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Influence of COVID-19 infection on placental function

Izabela Pilarska1, Magdalena Bizon2, Wlodzimierz Sawicki2
DOI: 10.5603/GP.a2022.0139
·
Pubmed: 36448345
·
Ginekol Pol 2023;94(1):79-83.
Affiliations
  1. Scientific Student’s Group of Chair and Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
  2. Chair and Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland

open access

Vol 94, No 1 (2023)
REVIEW PAPERS Obstetrics
Published online: 2022-11-25

Abstract

Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to infectious diseases because of their natural immunosuppression. SARS-CoV-2 seems to be a potential risk for the condition of women and the fetus. Unfortunately, knowledge of the influence of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) on pregnant women and their children is still very limited, and further investigation and analysis are needed. The aim of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis of research about the impact of COVID-19 on the placenta.
Material and methods: Articles published between 2020 and 2021 and contained in the PubMed and Elsevier databases were analyzed.
Results: The SARS-CoV-2 infection also led to pregnancy complications in the patients. The most common pregnancy complications include caesarean delivery (80%), preterm delivery (26%), fetal distress (8%), premature rupture of the membranes (9%) and stillbirth (2%). Among the observed patients, neonatal complications occurred, such as premature delivery (25%), respiratory distress syndrome (8%), pneumonia (8%) and deaths of 4 newborns SARS-CoV-2 was found mainly in syncytiotrophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal border of the placenta. Histological examination of the placenta revealed dense macrophage infiltration. Abnormal perfusion of fetal blood vessels or fetal vascular thrombosis was observed. Elevated levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgM antibodies in the umbilical cord blood were observed in nine newborns, reported as evidence of vertical infection.
Conclusions: The features of placental damage in women with COVID-19 are clearly different from the control group. Further research is needed to better understand how SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the placenta.

Abstract

Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to infectious diseases because of their natural immunosuppression. SARS-CoV-2 seems to be a potential risk for the condition of women and the fetus. Unfortunately, knowledge of the influence of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) on pregnant women and their children is still very limited, and further investigation and analysis are needed. The aim of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis of research about the impact of COVID-19 on the placenta.
Material and methods: Articles published between 2020 and 2021 and contained in the PubMed and Elsevier databases were analyzed.
Results: The SARS-CoV-2 infection also led to pregnancy complications in the patients. The most common pregnancy complications include caesarean delivery (80%), preterm delivery (26%), fetal distress (8%), premature rupture of the membranes (9%) and stillbirth (2%). Among the observed patients, neonatal complications occurred, such as premature delivery (25%), respiratory distress syndrome (8%), pneumonia (8%) and deaths of 4 newborns SARS-CoV-2 was found mainly in syncytiotrophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal border of the placenta. Histological examination of the placenta revealed dense macrophage infiltration. Abnormal perfusion of fetal blood vessels or fetal vascular thrombosis was observed. Elevated levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgM antibodies in the umbilical cord blood were observed in nine newborns, reported as evidence of vertical infection.
Conclusions: The features of placental damage in women with COVID-19 are clearly different from the control group. Further research is needed to better understand how SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the placenta.

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Keywords

SARS-CoV-2 infection; placenta; COVID-19 in pregnancy; umbilical cord

About this article
Title

Influence of COVID-19 infection on placental function

Journal

Ginekologia Polska

Issue

Vol 94, No 1 (2023)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

79-83

Published online

2022-11-25

Page views

285

Article views/downloads

199

DOI

10.5603/GP.a2022.0139

Pubmed

36448345

Bibliographic record

Ginekol Pol 2023;94(1):79-83.

Keywords

SARS-CoV-2 infection
placenta
COVID-19 in pregnancy
umbilical cord

Authors

Izabela Pilarska
Magdalena Bizon
Wlodzimierz Sawicki

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