open access

Vol 91, No 9 (2020)
ORIGINAL PAPERS Gynecology
Published online: 2020-09-30
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The impact of competitive sports on menstrual cycle and menstrual disorders, including premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and hormonal imbalances

Mariola Czajkowska, Agnieszka Drosdzol-Cop, Beata Naworska, Iwona Galazka, Celina Gogola, Magdalena Rutkowska, Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta
DOI: 10.5603/GP.2020.0097
·
Pubmed: 33030729
·
Ginekol Pol 2020;91(9):503-512.

open access

Vol 91, No 9 (2020)
ORIGINAL PAPERS Gynecology
Published online: 2020-09-30

Abstract

Objectives: With the considerable increase of female participation in youth sports, it has become crucial for medical professionals, coaches and parents to improve their competitiveness by understanding the conditions for which these females are at elevated risk and mitigating possible health consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect competitive sports have on the disorders of the menstrual cycle, to investigate the frequency of PMS (premenstrual syndrome)/PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric order) in professional female athletes and to identify risk factors predisposing for PMS and PMDD. Additionally, the levels of selected hormones such as serum estradiol, FSH, LH and prolactin were investigated to identify any hormonal perturbances that might have influence or be the risk factors for menstrual dysfunctions. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 75 professional athletes (girls and young women at the age of 16–22) who lived on the territory of Silesia. The control group consisted of 50 girls and young women at the same age, who did not practice any sport. The research tools included daily diary of PMS symptoms created in line with The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommendations and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria, daily diary of PMDD symptoms created according to DSM-V diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST). Results: The analysis of menstrual cycle disorders showed statistical significance for heavy menstrual bleeding (p = 0.01) and longer breaks between menstrual bleeds (p = 0.01). PMDD was diagnosed in 8% and PMS in more than 42% of respondents. The incidence of PMDD was not at significant variance between the groups (9.33% in contrast to 6.0%), while incidence of PMS was statistically different in both groups (p = 0.045) (49.33% vs 32.0%). A significant correlation between PMS, average age (p = 0.00001) and menarche age (p = 0.03) in young active athletes has been shown. The risk of PMS increased with age (by 1.71 with each year) (p = 0.0007). Conclusions: A number of other risk factors predisposing for PMS and PMDD has also been identified. The findings of these researches will enable the athletic care network to provide better care for young female athletes.

Abstract

Objectives: With the considerable increase of female participation in youth sports, it has become crucial for medical professionals, coaches and parents to improve their competitiveness by understanding the conditions for which these females are at elevated risk and mitigating possible health consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect competitive sports have on the disorders of the menstrual cycle, to investigate the frequency of PMS (premenstrual syndrome)/PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric order) in professional female athletes and to identify risk factors predisposing for PMS and PMDD. Additionally, the levels of selected hormones such as serum estradiol, FSH, LH and prolactin were investigated to identify any hormonal perturbances that might have influence or be the risk factors for menstrual dysfunctions. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 75 professional athletes (girls and young women at the age of 16–22) who lived on the territory of Silesia. The control group consisted of 50 girls and young women at the same age, who did not practice any sport. The research tools included daily diary of PMS symptoms created in line with The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommendations and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria, daily diary of PMDD symptoms created according to DSM-V diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST). Results: The analysis of menstrual cycle disorders showed statistical significance for heavy menstrual bleeding (p = 0.01) and longer breaks between menstrual bleeds (p = 0.01). PMDD was diagnosed in 8% and PMS in more than 42% of respondents. The incidence of PMDD was not at significant variance between the groups (9.33% in contrast to 6.0%), while incidence of PMS was statistically different in both groups (p = 0.045) (49.33% vs 32.0%). A significant correlation between PMS, average age (p = 0.00001) and menarche age (p = 0.03) in young active athletes has been shown. The risk of PMS increased with age (by 1.71 with each year) (p = 0.0007). Conclusions: A number of other risk factors predisposing for PMS and PMDD has also been identified. The findings of these researches will enable the athletic care network to provide better care for young female athletes.

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Keywords

menstruation cycle; menstrual disorders; premenstrual syndrome; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; sex hormones

About this article
Title

The impact of competitive sports on menstrual cycle and menstrual disorders, including premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and hormonal imbalances

Journal

Ginekologia Polska

Issue

Vol 91, No 9 (2020)

Pages

503-512

Published online

2020-09-30

DOI

10.5603/GP.2020.0097

Pubmed

33030729

Bibliographic record

Ginekol Pol 2020;91(9):503-512.

Keywords

menstruation cycle
menstrual disorders
premenstrual syndrome
premenstrual dysphoric disorder
sex hormones

Authors

Mariola Czajkowska
Agnieszka Drosdzol-Cop
Beata Naworska
Iwona Galazka
Celina Gogola
Magdalena Rutkowska
Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta

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