open access

Vol 90, No 3 (2019)
ORIGINAL PAPERS Obstetrics
Published online: 2019-03-29
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The clinical usefulness of biochemical (free β-hCG, PAPP-A) and ultrasound (nuchal translucency) parameters in prenatal screening of trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy

Katarzyna Ziolkowska, Piotr Dydowicz, Maciej Sobkowski, Kinga Tobola-Wrobel, Ewa Wysocka, Marek Pietryga
DOI: 10.5603/GP.2019.0029
·
Pubmed: 30950006
·
Ginekol Pol 2019;90(3):161-166.

open access

Vol 90, No 3 (2019)
ORIGINAL PAPERS Obstetrics
Published online: 2019-03-29

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation of multiples of the normal median of PAPP-A, free β-hCG levels and nuchal translucency values in prenatal, first trimester screening of trisomy 21 in pregnant women.  Material and methods: 251 pregnant women underwent antenatal screening at 11–13+6 weeks of pregnancy which was composed of the measurement of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP-A) levels in the maternal serum and an ultrasound assessment of nuchal translucency (NT). The pregnant women with a high risk of trisomy 21 (≥ 1:300) were given amniocentesis to verify fetal defects. There were 217 cases of normal fetal karyotype and 34 cases of trisomy 21. PAPP-A, β-hCGMoM and NT values were analyzed for the predefined ranges.  Results: 85% cases of trisomy 21 had elevated free β-hCGMoM ( > 1.5) and only 53% of these had a PAPP-AMoM result below 0.5 (p < 0.05). Analysis of NT in selected ranges of β-hCG ( > 1.5) and PAPP-AMoM ( < 0.05), which are typical for Down Syndrome values, showed that not all fetuses with Down Syndrome presented with an increased NT. Respectively 44.15% and 26.5% of fetuses presented with increased NT. Characteristic for trisomy 21, a correlation with all 1st trimester screening tests’ parameters occurred in only 23.5% of cases. In 53% of cases the results were atypical.  Conclusions: The PAPP-A and β-hCG values in the selected MoM ranges did not shown a correlation to the NT measurement, therefore they are independent factors in the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Simultaneous biochemical and ultrasound testing is an indispensable condition for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. 

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation of multiples of the normal median of PAPP-A, free β-hCG levels and nuchal translucency values in prenatal, first trimester screening of trisomy 21 in pregnant women.  Material and methods: 251 pregnant women underwent antenatal screening at 11–13+6 weeks of pregnancy which was composed of the measurement of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP-A) levels in the maternal serum and an ultrasound assessment of nuchal translucency (NT). The pregnant women with a high risk of trisomy 21 (≥ 1:300) were given amniocentesis to verify fetal defects. There were 217 cases of normal fetal karyotype and 34 cases of trisomy 21. PAPP-A, β-hCGMoM and NT values were analyzed for the predefined ranges.  Results: 85% cases of trisomy 21 had elevated free β-hCGMoM ( > 1.5) and only 53% of these had a PAPP-AMoM result below 0.5 (p < 0.05). Analysis of NT in selected ranges of β-hCG ( > 1.5) and PAPP-AMoM ( < 0.05), which are typical for Down Syndrome values, showed that not all fetuses with Down Syndrome presented with an increased NT. Respectively 44.15% and 26.5% of fetuses presented with increased NT. Characteristic for trisomy 21, a correlation with all 1st trimester screening tests’ parameters occurred in only 23.5% of cases. In 53% of cases the results were atypical.  Conclusions: The PAPP-A and β-hCG values in the selected MoM ranges did not shown a correlation to the NT measurement, therefore they are independent factors in the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Simultaneous biochemical and ultrasound testing is an indispensable condition for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. 

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Keywords

PAPP-A; free β-hCG; nuchal translucency (NT); prenatal screening; trisomy 21

About this article
Title

The clinical usefulness of biochemical (free β-hCG, PAPP-A) and ultrasound (nuchal translucency) parameters in prenatal screening of trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy

Journal

Ginekologia Polska

Issue

Vol 90, No 3 (2019)

Pages

161-166

Published online

2019-03-29

DOI

10.5603/GP.2019.0029

Pubmed

30950006

Bibliographic record

Ginekol Pol 2019;90(3):161-166.

Keywords

PAPP-A
free β-hCG
nuchal translucency (NT)
prenatal screening
trisomy 21

Authors

Katarzyna Ziolkowska
Piotr Dydowicz
Maciej Sobkowski
Kinga Tobola-Wrobel
Ewa Wysocka
Marek Pietryga

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