Online first
Review paper
Published online: 2024-07-11

open access

Page views 41
Article views/downloads 35
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Prevalence and diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents — what's new in 2023? Systematic review

Karolina M. Jakubowska-Kowal1, Karolina J. Skrzynska1, Aneta M. Gawlik-Starzyk1

Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting approximately 5 to 18% of women of reproductive age and 3 to 11% of teenagers. The diagnostic criteria used in adult patients are not suitable for the diagnosis of adolescent patients, because some of the features may be physiological for puberty, so research is still ongoing to improve the criteria for diagnosing PCOS in teenagers. Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with hormonal and metabolic changes and may predispose to the occurrence of many other diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Due to the high prevalence of PCOS and the various health problems it brings, it is necessary to select adolescent girls from the risk group, make an efficient diagnosis, start appropriate treatment, and lead the patient through a lifestyle change as soon as possible. Researchers' attention is increasingly focused on patients presenting with PCOS already in their teenage years. In our work, we want to look at the latest reports regarding the prevalence, pathophysiology and diagnosis of PCOS in adolescent girls.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Ding T, Hardiman PJ, Petersen I, et al. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in reproductive-aged women of different ethnicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oncotarget. 2017; 8(56): 96351–96358.
  2. Bozdag G, Mumusoglu S, Zengin D, et al. The prevalence and phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2016; 31(12): 2841–2855.
  3. Naz MS, Tehrani FR, Majd HA, et al. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Reprod Biomed. 2019; 17(8): 533–542.
  4. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod. 2004; 19(1): 41–47.
  5. Spritzer PM, Motta AB. Adolescence and polycystic ovary syndrome: current concepts on diagnosis and treatment. Int J Clin Pract. 2015; 69(11): 1236–1246.
  6. Ibáñez L, Oberfield SE, Witchel S, et al. An International Consortium Update: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Adolescence. Horm Res Paediatr. 2017; 88(6): 371–395.
  7. Peña AS, Codner E, Witchel S. Criteria for Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome during Adolescence: Literature Review. Diagnostics (Basel). 2022; 12(8).
  8. Manzano-Nunez R, Santana-Dominguez M, Rivera-Esteban J, et al. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression. J Clin Med. 2023; 12(3).
  9. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril. 2012; 97(1): 28–38.e25.
  10. Wekker V, van Dammen L, Koning A, et al. Long-term cardiometabolic disease risk in women with PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2020; 26(6): 942–960.
  11. Kim JuH, Jung MH, Hong SeH, et al. Age-Adjusted Prevalence and Characteristics of Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Study (2010-2019). Yonsei Med J. 2022; 63(8): 794–798.
  12. Jabeen A, Yamini V, Rahman Amberina A, et al. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Prevalence, Predisposing Factors, and Awareness Among Adolescent and Young Girls of South India. Cureus. 2022; 14(8): e27943.
  13. Mirza FG, Tahlak MA, Hazari K, et al. Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome amongst Females Aged between 15 and 45 Years at a Major Women's Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023; 20(9).
  14. Bhardwaj P, Yadav SK, Taneja J. Magnitude and associated factors of menstrual irregularity among young girls: A cross-sectional study during COVID-19 second wave in India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2022; 11(12): 7769–7775.
  15. Pourhoseini SA, Babazadeh R, Mazlom SR. Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iranian Adolescent Girls Based on Adults and Adolescents' Diagnostic Criteria in Mashhad City. J Reprod Infertil. 2022; 23(4): 288–295.
  16. Hong Yu, Zhou ZH, Dong Z, et al. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome under NIH criteria among the tenth-grade Chinese schoolgirls in Guangzhou area: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey. BMC Womens Health. 2023; 23(1): 31.
  17. Mastacouris N, Strunk A, Garg A. Prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome among children and adolescents with hidradenitis suppurativa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2023; 89(2): 425–427.
  18. Valsamakis G, Violetis O, Chatzakis C, et al. Daughters of polycystic ovary syndrome pregnancies and androgen levels in puberty: a Meta-analysis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2022; 38(10): 822–830.
  19. Long C, Feng H, Duan W, et al. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022; 13: 980405.
  20. Adjei NN, Yung N, Towers G, et al. Establishing an Association between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Pilonidal Disease in Adolescent Females. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2023; 36(1): 39–44.
  21. Dobbie LJ, Pittam B, Zhao SS, et al. Childhood, adolescent, and adulthood adiposity are associated with risk of PCOS: a Mendelian randomization study with meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2023; 38(6): 1168–1182.
  22. Pringle D, Suliman S, Seedat S, et al. The impact of childhood maltreatment on women's reproductive health, with a focus on symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. Child Abuse Negl. 2022; 133: 105831.
  23. Silva LR, Melo AS, Salomão KB, et al. MIR146A and ADIPOQ genetic variants are associated with birth weight in relation to gestational age: a cohort study. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2022; 39(8): 1873–1886.
  24. Lidaka L, Bekere L, Lazdane G, et al. Role of Single Nucleotide Variants in the Gene in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Biomedicines. 2022; 10(7).
  25. Jain S, Jain M, Shukla RC. Correlation of Clinical, Hormonal, Biochemical and Ultrasound Parameters Between Adult and Adolescent Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Adult and Adolescent PCOS. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2022; 72(Suppl 1): 274–280.
  26. Kiconco S, Earnest A, Enticott J, et al. Normative cut-offs for polycystic ovary syndrome diagnostic features in adolescents using cluster analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2023; 188(6): 494–502.
  27. Tsukui Y, Kitahara Y, Hasegawa Y, et al. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in the diagnosis of adolescent polycystic ovarian syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Endocr J. 2022; 69(8): 897–906.
  28. Hanedan N, Ersoy B, Hanedan C, et al. Effect of the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome-related features on anti-Mullerian hormone and androstenedione levels in adolescents with or without menstrual irregularity. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2022; 306(2): 523–531.
  29. Białka-Kosiec A, Orszulak D, Gawlik A, et al. The relationship between the level of vitamin D, leptin and FGF23 in girls and young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022; 13: 1000261.
  30. Hagen CP, Fischer MB, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, et al. AMH concentrations in infancy and mid-childhood predict ovarian activity in adolescence: A long-term longitudinal study of healthy girls. EClinicalMedicine. 2023; 55: 101742.
  31. Taylor AE, Ware MA, Breslow E, et al. 11-Oxyandrogens in Adolescents With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. J Endocr Soc. 2022; 6(7): bvac037.
  32. Lynn AY, Solomon N, Zamani M, et al. Evaluation of the Association of Endometrial Thickness, Insulin Resistance, and Menstrual Patterns in Adolescent Females with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2023; 36(2): 134–139.
  33. Patel S, Pushpalatha K, Singh B, et al. Evaluation of Hormonal Profile and Ovarian Morphology among Adolescent Girls with Menstrual Irregularities in a Tertiary Care Centre at Central India. ScientificWorldJournal. 2022; 2022: 3047526.
  34. Kalra S, Vaidya R, Verma M, et al. Primary Care Screening Tool for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Step One in the Battle Against Non-Communicable Disease. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2023; 27(2): 105–106.