Vol 95, No 6 (2024)
Research paper
Published online: 2023-12-20

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Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, prognosis and pregnancy outcomes in rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix: a case series

Xiuzhang Yu12, Mingrong Qie12, Liyan Huang3, Minmin Hou12
Pubmed: 38126889
Ginekol Pol 2024;95(6):451-459.

Abstract

Objectives: In this retrospective observational study, cases from our institution were included and the published literature reviewed to investigate the diagnosis and prognosis of cervical rhabdomyosarcoma, a rare group of tumours. Material and methods: The clinicopathological data of 12 patients with cervical rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated at the West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2006 to May 2023 were collected, and their clinicopathological characteristics, diagnoses, treatments, prognoses and pregnancy outcomes were retrospectively analysed. Results: (1) Clinical characteristics: The ages of the 12 RMS patients ranged from 15 to 50 years, with a median age of 17 years. Five of the patients were adults, and seven were adolescents. The initial symptoms were vaginal bleeding in 5 patients, vaginal tissue prolapse in 6 patients, and abdominal pain and urinary frequency in 1 patient. Two patients were considered to have “cervical polyps” and underwent polypectomy at the other hospitals, but the cervical mass recurred soon thereafter. (2) Pathological features: The maximum tumour diameter ranged from 3 to 25 cm. The twelve cases of cervical RMS consisted of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) in 7 adolescents, ERMS in 3 adults, and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) in 2 adults. Immunohistochemical results showed the expression of one or more characteristic markers of RMS. We reclassified tumour stage according to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) clinical group and tumour node metastasis (TNM) classification. (3) Treatment: Eight patients underwent radical surgery (66.7%, 8/12), including all 5 of the included adults and 3 of the adolescents, 2 of whom were treated 10 years ago. Conservative surgical resection was performed on four patients (33.3%, 4/12), all of whom were adolescents. Postoperative chemotherapy was given to all patients except one, but one patient who underwent radical surgery discontinued chemotherapy on her own without receiving a full course. Two of the ERMS patients underwent preoperative chemotherapy, and the lesions were significantly reduced. (4) Prognosis: One of the 12 patients with cervical RMS was lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 11 patients, 10 (including seven adolescents and three adults) survived tumour free (90.9%, 10/11), and 1 adult patient with existing pulmonary multiple metastases (IRS stage IV, T2N0M1) at the initial diagnosis survived 9 months with progression-free disease (9.1%, 1/11). The median survival time was 91 months (5 to 213 months). Among 4 patients receiving fertility-sparing management, 1 conceived and delivered successfully (25%). Conclusions: The treatment of cervical RMS must take the patient’s age and reproductive intent into account. The overall prognosis for cervical RMS in children and adolescents is good, and conservative surgical resection combined with chemotherapy is recommended to preserve fertility. The pregnancy outcome is also worth anticipating. For patients who have completed childbirth, radical surgery is preferred. Approaches to accurately assessing the patient's condition, grasping the indications and scope of surgery, and developing chemoradiotherapy regimens deserve further exploration.

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