Vol 94, No 5 (2023)
Research paper
Published online: 2023-04-05

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Comparison of the clinical characteristics, glycemic control, and pregnancy outcomes between women with gestational diabetes mellitus in waves I and III of the COVID-19 pandemic: a reference center report

Magdalena Wilk1, Magdalena Kwiatkowska1, Michal Kania1, Radoslaw Dziedzic2, Adam Stepien2, Katarzyna Cyganek1, Hubert Huras3, Maciej T. Malecki1
Pubmed: 37042324
Ginekol Pol 2023;94(5):389-394.

Abstract

Objectives: The medical care of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during the COVID-19 pandemic was influenced by changing epidemiological conditions and government regulations. Aim — To compare the clinical pregnancy data of GDM women between waves I and III of the pandemic. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records from the GDM clinic and compared the periods of March–May 2020 (wave I) and March–May 2021 (wave III). Results: Women with GDM during wave I (n = 119) compared to wave III (n = 116) were older (33.0 ± 4.7 vs 32.1 ± 4.8 years; p = 0.07), booked later (21.8 ± 8.4 vs 20.3 ± 8.5 weeks; p = 0.17), and had their last appointment earlier (35.5 ± 2.0 vs 35.7 ± 3.2 weeks; p < 0.01). Telemedicine consultations were used more frequently during wave I (46.8% vs 24.1%; p < 0.01), while insulin therapy was used less often (64.7% vs 80.2%; p < 0.01). Mean fasting self-measured glucose did not differ (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; p = 0.49), but higher postprandial glucose was reported during wave I (6.6 ± 0.9 vs 6.3 ± 0.6 mmol/l; p < 0.01). Pregnancy outcome data were available for 77 wave I pregnancies and 75 wave III pregnancies. The groups were similar in terms of gestational week of delivery (38.3 ± 1.4 vs 38.1 ± 1.6 weeks), cesarean sections (58.4% vs 61.3%), APGAR scores (9.7 ± 1.0 vs 9.7 ± 1.0 pts), and birth weights (3306.6 ± 457.6 g vs 3243.9 ± 496.8 g) (p = NS for all). The mean wave I neonate length was slightly higher (54.3 ± 2.6 cm vs 53.3 ± 2.6 cm; p = 0.04). Conclusions: We identified differences between wave I and wave III pregnancies for several clinical characteristics. However, nearly all pregnancy outcomes were found to be similar.

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