Vol 93, No 9 (2022)
Research paper
Published online: 2022-01-26

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Respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants: possible impact of surfactant application techniques

Pawel Krajewski1, Tomasz Pomianek1, Krzysztof Truszkowski1, Katarzyna Wieckowska1, Monika Gorska1, Miroslaw Wielgos1
Pubmed: 35106747
Ginekol Pol 2022;93(9):750-755.

Abstract

Objectives: Prematurity is one of the most important issues in perinatology. The most frequent postnatal pathology connected with prematurity is respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by surfactant deficiency due to lung immaturity. RDS is one of the most frequent causes of mortality and morbidity with short- and long-term consequences. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of individual surfactant supply techniques in the treatment of respiratory disorders in premature infants.

Material and methods: In the period from the year 2009 to 2013, there were 198 very premature infants that received surfactant included to this retrospective study. 

They were divided into three groups based on the surfactant application method:

  1. Premature newborns with substitute ventilation, with supply of surfactant through a traditional endotracheal tube — Average gestational age 26.6 weeks; Mean birth weight 911 g; Average Apgar score 4 in 1st minute, 6 in 5th minute.
  2. Premature newborns with exogenous surfactant supplementation — InSure method — Average gestational age 28.3 weeks; Average birth weight 1117 g; Mean Apgar score 6 in 1st minute, 7 in 5th minute.
  3. Premature newborns with exogenous surfactant supplementation — Less Invasive Surfactant Administration (LISA) method — Mean gestational age 29.9 weeks; Average birth weight 1444 g; Average Apgar score 7 in 1st minute, 8 in 5th minute.

Results: Noninvasive methods of respiratory support and minimally invasive surfactant administration (MISA) significantly reduced the incidence of severe RDS, compared to the traditional method.

Conclusions: Non-invasive methods of respiratory support and MISA like LISA and InSure methods were safe and effective in the treatment of RDS.

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