Vol 92, No 4 (2021)
Review paper
Published online: 2021-03-18

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Chaos and cancers. Theories concerning carcinogenesis

Wojciech Kwasniewski1, Aleksandra Stupak2, Jan Kotarski1, Anna Gozdzicak-Jozefiak3
Pubmed: 33757157
Ginekol Pol 2021;92(4):318-321.


One of the most intriguing problems in biomedical sciences is the theory explaining cancer formation. It is known that
cancer is the result of many molecular processes, the presence of oncogenic factors and the loss of apoptosis of affected
cells. We currently have hypotheses based on carcinogenesis because of a single cell gene mutation, i.e. somatic mutation
theory (SMT), or disorders in tissue architecture and intercellular communication called (TOFT) Tissue Organization Field
Theory. An attempt to combine these separate and compatible cause and effect pathways into one unified theory of cancer
transformation is the theory of chaotic adaptation. The new interpretative model is the systemic-evolution theory of cancer
(SETOC) which postulates disintegration between the symbiosis of “energy” and “information” in normal cells. There are also
epidemiological studies confirming that some types of cancer arise from viral infection. So, let us ask the question, can one
hypothesis explain all the features of cancer?

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