open access

Vol 89, No 9 (2018)
Review paper
Published online: 2018-09-28
Get Citation

Gestational diabetes mellitus — literature review on selected cytokines and hormones of confirmed or possible role in its pathogenesis

Joanna Świrska12, Agnieszka Zwolak12, Marta Dudzińska1, Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek2, Tomasz Paszkowski3
DOI: 10.5603/GP.a2018.0089
·
Pubmed: 30318581
·
Ginekol Pol 2018;89(9):522-527.
Affiliations
  1. Chair of Internal Medicine and Department of Internal Nursing, Medical University in Lublin, Poland
  2. Department of Endocrinology, Medical University in Lublin, Lublin, Poland, 8 Jaczewskiego Street, 20-954 Lublin, Poland
  3. 3rd Chair and Department of Gynecology, Medical University in Lublin, Poland

open access

Vol 89, No 9 (2018)
REVIEW PAPERS Obstetrics
Published online: 2018-09-28

Abstract

The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases globally, including Poland. Considering serious consequences of gestational diabetes for both mother and fetus, screening for this disorder is an obligatory element of managing pregnant woman. The pathogenesis of gestational diabetes is not yet thoroughly explained. However, it is insulin resistance and chronic subclinical inflammatory process which are considered to be major factors responsible for the development of GDM. These two states are triggered mainly by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and by abnormal function of adipose tissue. The study reviews the literature on selected hormones and cytokines whose role in the GDM pathogenesis has been already confirmed as well as on those proteins whose role is either not yet fully understood or which may possibly participate in GDM development. Owing to the fact that underlying mechanisms of GDM are, in general, similar to the mechanisms responsible for metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity, in this review we focus first on the role these molecules play in pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and then present current state of knowledge on their action in gestational diabetes development. The review presents: TNF alpha, adipokines — adiponectin and leptin and relatively newly discovered proteins: fetuin A, periostin, angiopoietin-like protein 8 or high mobility group box.

Abstract

The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases globally, including Poland. Considering serious consequences of gestational diabetes for both mother and fetus, screening for this disorder is an obligatory element of managing pregnant woman. The pathogenesis of gestational diabetes is not yet thoroughly explained. However, it is insulin resistance and chronic subclinical inflammatory process which are considered to be major factors responsible for the development of GDM. These two states are triggered mainly by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and by abnormal function of adipose tissue. The study reviews the literature on selected hormones and cytokines whose role in the GDM pathogenesis has been already confirmed as well as on those proteins whose role is either not yet fully understood or which may possibly participate in GDM development. Owing to the fact that underlying mechanisms of GDM are, in general, similar to the mechanisms responsible for metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity, in this review we focus first on the role these molecules play in pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and then present current state of knowledge on their action in gestational diabetes development. The review presents: TNF alpha, adipokines — adiponectin and leptin and relatively newly discovered proteins: fetuin A, periostin, angiopoietin-like protein 8 or high mobility group box.

Get Citation

Keywords

gestational diabetes, metabolic disorders, cytokines, hormones

About this article
Title

Gestational diabetes mellitus — literature review on selected cytokines and hormones of confirmed or possible role in its pathogenesis

Journal

Ginekologia Polska

Issue

Vol 89, No 9 (2018)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

522-527

Published online

2018-09-28

DOI

10.5603/GP.a2018.0089

Pubmed

30318581

Bibliographic record

Ginekol Pol 2018;89(9):522-527.

Keywords

gestational diabetes
metabolic disorders
cytokines
hormones

Authors

Joanna Świrska
Agnieszka Zwolak
Marta Dudzińska
Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek
Tomasz Paszkowski

References (55)
  1. Wójcik M, Chmielewska-Kassassir M, Grzywnowicz K, et al. The relationship between adipose tissue-derived hormones and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Endokrynol Pol. 2014; 65(2): 134–142.
  2. Bener A, Saleh NM, Al Hamaq A. 640 Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes and Associated Maternal and Neonatal Complications in a Fast Developing Community: Global Comparisons in a fast developing community: global comparison. Int J Womens Health. 2011; 3: 367–373.
  3. Atègbo JM, Grissa O, Yessoufou A, et al. Modulation of adipokines and cytokines in gestational diabetes and macrosomia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91(10): 4137–4143.
  4. Xu J, Zhao Y, Chen Y, et al. Maternal Circulating Concentrations of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: 1–12.
  5. Melchior H, Kurch-Bek D, Mund M. The Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2017; 114(24): 412–418.
  6. Wielgoś M, Bomba-Opoń D, Czajkowski K, et al. Towards a European Consensus on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Pragmatic Guide for Diagnosis, Management, and Care. The Polish Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group and FIGO. Ginekologia Polska. 2017; 88(1): 46–49.
  7. Metzger BE. Long-term outcomes in mothers diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and their offspring. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 50(4): 972–979.
  8. Löbner K, Knopff A, Baumgarten A, et al. Predictors of postpartum diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2006; 55(3): 792–797.
  9. Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature. 2006; 444(7121): 860–867.
  10. Akash MS, Rehman K, Liaqat A. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha: Role in Development of Insulin Resistance and Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(1): 105–110.
  11. Gao L, Gu Y, Yin X. High Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(10): e0164021.
  12. Fischer R, Maier O. Interrelation of oxidative stress and inflammation in neurodegenerative disease: role of TNF. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015; 2015: 610813.
  13. Sprague AH, Khalil RA. Inflammatory cytokines in vascular dysfunction and vascular disease. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009; 78(6): 539–552.
  14. Hotamisligil GS, Arner P, Caro JF, et al. Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 1995; 95(5): 2409–2415.
  15. Hotamisligil GS, Budavari A, Murray D, et al. Reduced tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor in obesity-diabetes. Central role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Clin Invest. 1994; 94(4): 1543–1549.
  16. Stanley TL, Zanni MV, Johnsen S, et al. TNF-alpha antagonism with etanercept decreases glucose and increases the proportion of high molecular weight adiponectin in obese subjects with features of the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(1): E146–E150.
  17. Cseh K, Baranyi E, Melczer Z, et al. Tumor necrosis factor system in insulin resistance in gestational diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002; 56(2): 93–99.
  18. Barbour LA, McCurdy CE, Hernandez TL, et al. Cellular mechanisms for insulin resistance in normal pregnancy and gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30 Suppl 2: S112–S119.
  19. Kirwan JP, Mouzon SHD, Lepercq J, et al. TNF-  Is a Predictor of Insulin Resistance in Human Pregnancy. Diabetes. 2002; 51(7): 2207–2213.
  20. Al-Badri MR, Zantout MS, Azar ST. The role of adipokines in gestational diabetes mellitus. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 6(3): 103–108.
  21. Osegbe I, Okpara H, Azinge E. Relationship between serum leptin and insulin resistance among obese Nigerian women. Ann Afr Med. 2016; 15(1): 14–19.
  22. Kautzky-Willer A, Pacini G, Tura A, et al. Increased plasma leptin in gestational diabetes. Diabetologia. 2001; 44(2): 164–172.
  23. Wang TN, Chang WT, Chiu YW, et al. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2013; 29(8): 436–443.
  24. Pérez C, Fernández-Galaz C, Fernández-Agulló T, et al. Leptin impairs insulin signaling in rat adipocytes. Diabetes. 2004; 53(2): 347–353.
  25. Marroquí L, Gonzalez A, Ñeco P, et al. Role of leptin in the pancreatic β-cell: effects and signaling pathways. J Mol Endocrinol. 2012; 49(1): 164–172.
  26. Zuo H, Shi Z, Yuan B, et al. Association between serum leptin concentrations and insulin resistance: a population-based study from China. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): 1–7.
  27. Sattar N, Greer IA, Pirwani I, et al. Leptin levels in pregnancy: marker for fat accumulation and mobilization? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1998; 77(3): 278–283.
  28. Kwon H, Pessin J. Adipokines Mediate Inflammation and Insulin Resistance. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2013; 4.
  29. Takemura Y, Ouchi N, Shibata R, et al. Adiponectin modulates inflammatory reactions via calreticulin receptor-dependent clearance of early apoptotic bodies. J Clin Invest. 2007; 117(2): 375–386.
  30. Catalano PM, Hoegh M, Minium J, et al. Adiponectin in human pregnancy: implications for regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetologia. 2006; 49(7): 1677–1685.
  31. Williams MA, Qiu C, Muy-Rivera M, et al. Plasma adiponectin concentrations in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89(5): 2306–2311.
  32. Haghiac M, Basu S, Presley L, et al. Patterns of adiponectin expression in term pregnancy: impact of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(9): 3427–3434.
  33. Vrachnis N, Belitsos P, Sifakis S, et al. Role of Adipokines and Other Inflammatory Mediators in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2012; 2012: 1–12.
  34. Okamoto Y. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome. Cardiology Research and Practice. 2011; 2011: 1–7.
  35. Noureldeen AFH, Qusti SY, Al-Seeni MN, et al. Maternal leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in normal and gestational diabetes. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2014; 29(4): 462–470.
  36. Wang H, Lai Y, Han C, et al. The Effects of Serum ANGPTL8/betatrophin on the Risk of Developing the Metabolic Syndrome – A Prospective Study. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6(1).
  37. Quagliarini F, Wang Y, Kozlitina J, et al. Atypical angiopoietin-like protein that regulates ANGPTL3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(48): 19751–19756.
  38. Martinez-Perez B, Ejarque M, Gutierrez C, et al. Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) in pregnancy: a brown adipose tissue–derived endocrine factor with a potential role in fetal growth. Translational Research. 2016; 178: 1–12.
  39. Gómez-Ambrosi J, Pascual E, Catalán V, et al. Circulating betatrophin concentrations are decreased in human obesity and type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(10): E2004–E2009.
  40. Trebotic L, Klimek P, Thomas A, et al. Circulating Betatrophin Is Strongly Increased in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. PLOS ONE. 2015; 10(9): e0136701.
  41. Wang H, Du L, Wu T, et al. Circulating betatrophin is associated with insulin resistance in humans: cross-sectional and interventional studies and . Oncotarget. 2017; 8(57): 96604–96614.
  42. Fu Z, Abou-Samra AB, Zhang R. An explanation for recent discrepancies in levels of human circulating betatrophin. Diabetologia. 2014; 57(10): 2232–2234.
  43. Luo Y, Qu H, Wang H, et al. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters. Mediators of Inflammation. 2016; 2016: 1–6.
  44. Lu Y, Liu X, Jiao Y, et al. Periostin promotes liver steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia through downregulation of PPARα. J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(8): 3501–3513.
  45. Zhu JZ, Zhu HT, Dai YN, et al. Serum periostin is a potential biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case-control study. Endocrine. 2016; 51(1): 91–100.
  46. Satirapoj B, Tassanasorn S, Charoenpitakchai M, et al. Periostin as a tissue and urinary biomarker of renal injury in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4): e0124055.
  47. Freis A, Schlegel J, Kuon RJ, et al. Serum periostin levels in early in pregnancy are significantly altered in women with miscarriage. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2017; 15(1).
  48. Farhan S, Handisurya A, Todoric J, et al. Fetuin-A Characteristics during and after Pregnancy: Result from a Case Control Pilot Study. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2012; 2012: 1–5.
  49. Iyidir OT, Degertekin CK, Yilmaz BA, et al. Serum levels of fetuin A are increased in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015; 291(4): 933–937.
  50. Sun Qi, Cornelis MC, Manson JE, et al. Plasma levels of fetuin-A and hepatic enzymes and risk of type 2 diabetes in women in the U.S. Diabetes. 2013; 62(1): 49–55.
  51. Liu Yu, Xu M, Xu Yu, et al. Positive correlation between chronic hyperglycemia and serum fetuin-A levels in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. J Diabetes. 2012; 4(4): 351–358.
  52. Kalabay L, Cseh K, Pajor A, et al. Correlation of maternal serum fetuin/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein concentration with maternal insulin resistance and anthropometric parameters of neonates in normal pregnancy and gestational diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002; 147(2): 243–248.
  53. Giacobbe A, Granese R, Grasso R, et al. Association between maternal serum high mobility group box 1 levels and pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016; 26(5): 414–418.
  54. Bertheloot D, Latz E. HMGB1, IL-1α, IL-33 and S100 proteins: dual-function alarmins. Cell Mol Immunol. 2017; 14(1): 43–64.
  55. Arrigo T, Chirico V, Salpietro V, et al. High-mobility group protein B1: a new biomarker of metabolic syndrome in obese children. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013; 168(4): 631–638.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk
tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl