Vol 79, No 4 (2008)

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Kristeller’s Procedure – Expressio fetus, its genesis and contemporary application

Edmund Waszyński
Ginekol Pol 2008;79(4).


Summary The aim of the article is to introduce the original version of Kristeller’s procedure – Expressio fetus. The author of the procedure, Samuel Kristeller, was born in 1820 in Ksia˝ Wielkopolski. He worked as a physician in Gniezno, then in Berlin. He is known as the creator of the described procedure – pushing out the foetus. He had also specified the meaning of the cervical plug (Kristeller’s plug), and modified obstetrical forceps. He died in Berlin in 1900. In 1867, Kristeller published a study in which he described a procedure, of which he was the author, of pushing out the foetus (manual assistance), its technique, conditions and recommendations for its application. The main idea of the procedure meant strengthening uterine contractions during labour by massaging the uterus and pressing it many times shortly, towards the long axis of the birth canal. Nowadays this procedure has become warped in its form; there remains also the controversy whether or not to use external force directed on the uterine fundus during labour, due to the risk of intrauterine foetal anoxia and other complications.

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