open access

Vol 82, No 1 (2011)
ARTICLES
Get Citation

Analysis of cervicovaginal fluid in the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes

Dorota Knapik, Anita Olejek
Ginekol Pol 2011;82(1).

open access

Vol 82, No 1 (2011)
ARTICLES

Abstract

Abstract Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates approximately 8% of all pregnancies, however in 3% of the cases the membrane rupture occurs before 37 weeks of gestation (preterm PROM – PPROM). The consequences of such an early loss of amniotic fluid are very serious. Serious complications and mortality of neonates born prematurely due to PPROM is very high and inversely proportional to gestational age. The diagnosis of PROM is based on medical history and physical examination. In case of doubt, a test determining the pH of vaginal secretions and ultrasonography with assessment of amniotic fluid index may be applied. In difficult cases vaginal fluid diagnostic markers are very helpful. Proposed markers include: beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG), placental alpha-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Other markers were also proposed, namely interleukin 6 (IL-6), prolactin, creatinine and lactates. Several tests for the analysis of cervico-vaginal secretions are already commercially available. In Poland various tests based on the analysis of vaginal pH and a test Actim Prom® based on the analysis of IGFBP-1 are available. In clinical practice, approximately 10% of cases of PROM require additional confirmation, which can be difficult, especially in the outpatient setting. Various types of bedside tests, the so-called point-of-care testing – POCT. are increasingly used in contemporary medical practice. Their implementation does not require a laboratory, specialized equipment or trained personnel. This paper presents only those markers that either are already used in the diagnosis of PROM in the form of POCT testing, or could be relatively easily adapted for this purpose.

Abstract

Abstract Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates approximately 8% of all pregnancies, however in 3% of the cases the membrane rupture occurs before 37 weeks of gestation (preterm PROM – PPROM). The consequences of such an early loss of amniotic fluid are very serious. Serious complications and mortality of neonates born prematurely due to PPROM is very high and inversely proportional to gestational age. The diagnosis of PROM is based on medical history and physical examination. In case of doubt, a test determining the pH of vaginal secretions and ultrasonography with assessment of amniotic fluid index may be applied. In difficult cases vaginal fluid diagnostic markers are very helpful. Proposed markers include: beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG), placental alpha-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Other markers were also proposed, namely interleukin 6 (IL-6), prolactin, creatinine and lactates. Several tests for the analysis of cervico-vaginal secretions are already commercially available. In Poland various tests based on the analysis of vaginal pH and a test Actim Prom® based on the analysis of IGFBP-1 are available. In clinical practice, approximately 10% of cases of PROM require additional confirmation, which can be difficult, especially in the outpatient setting. Various types of bedside tests, the so-called point-of-care testing – POCT. are increasingly used in contemporary medical practice. Their implementation does not require a laboratory, specialized equipment or trained personnel. This paper presents only those markers that either are already used in the diagnosis of PROM in the form of POCT testing, or could be relatively easily adapted for this purpose.
Get Citation

Keywords

premature rupture of membranes, cervico-vaginal secretions, diagnostics, tests

About this article
Title

Analysis of cervicovaginal fluid in the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes

Journal

Ginekologia Polska

Issue

Vol 82, No 1 (2011)

Bibliographic record

Ginekol Pol 2011;82(1).

Keywords

premature rupture of membranes
cervico-vaginal secretions
diagnostics
tests

Authors

Dorota Knapik
Anita Olejek

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk
tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl