Vol 82, No 9 (2011)
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Contemporary management of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the female genital organs

Małgorzata Kuc-Rajca, Anna Dańska-Bidzińska
Ginekol Pol 2011;82(9).

Abstract

Abstract Neuroendocrine neoplasms are a rare and heterogeneous group of diseases that account for only 2% of all gynecologic malignancies. The most common types are ovarian carcinoid tumor and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix. The tumors are staged according to FIGO clinical staging system. The diagnosis is usually made retrospectively, after obtaining the results of histopathological evaluation of the primary tumor. They rarely cause syndromes related to hormone overexpression. Neuroendocrine neoplasms are characterized by aggressive behaviour. Even at an early stage there is high incidence of nodal and distant metastases. Survival is poor regardless of stage at diagnosis. The most important is to diagnose the neuroendocrine tumor accurately and treat it in multimodal, aggressive approach to control the disease better and reduce the incidence of reccurences. Apart from typical therapeutic approach, treatment may encompass isotope therapy using radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. This method should be reserved for patients with expression of somatostatin receptors detected by the somatostatin receptor scyntygraphy. Data concerning the management of neuroendocrin tumors are based mainly on retrospective studies and clinical case series. Lack of randomized trials makes it impossible to select the best treatment option. Better understanding of the biology of neuroendocrine tumors, especially the molecular genetics, will in the future help to determine the optimal treatment strategies for these tumors.

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