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Vol 84, No 7 (2013)
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Therapeutic and prognostic value of lymphadenectomy in gynecological oncology

Katarzyna Perżyło, Paweł Miotła, Ernest Lis, Tomasz Rechberger
DOI: 10.17772/gp/1616
·
Ginekol Pol 2013;84(7).

open access

Vol 84, No 7 (2013)
ARTICLES

Abstract

Lymphadenectomy is an integral part of gynecological cancer surgery, however there is still lack of standardization in the terminology used. In the current literature several types of surgical procedures for pelvic lymph nodes dissection are recognized. Complete pelvic lymphadenectomy is defined as the removal of all fatty lymphatic tissue from the predicted areas of high incidence of lymph nodes with possible metastatic involvement. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy is defined as the removal of all lymphatic tissue from the aortic region. The latter is divided into two levels: the lower - up to the inferior mesenteric artery and the upper - up to the left renal vein. Another classification divided pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomy into three classes. Class I is defined as the removal of the chosen lymph nodes, class II as the removal of lymph nodes located ventrally and laterally to the large retroperitoneal pelvic vessels, obturator nerves and laterally to the aorta and the inferior vena cava, whereas class III as the complete removal of lymphatic tissue surrounding the iliac vessels, obturator pits, dorsally to the obturator nerve and the presacral lymph tissue around the aorta and the inferior vena cava. In each gynecological cancer, depending on the severity of the disease different procedures are applied concerning lymphadenectomy. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer systematic lymphadenectomy prolongs the survival rate. Omission of systematic lymphadenectomy can be considered only for patients with mucinous carcinoma G1 level. In the case of vulvar cancer, removal of pelvic, iliac and obturator lymph nodes is inappropriate as it has not been proven to result in an increased survival rate. Inguinal lymphadenectomy in this cancer depends on the stage and location of the primary tumor - at an early stage vulvar cancer located laterally a superficial, unilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy can be performed, if the primary lesion is located centrally an inguinal lymphadenectomy should be performed on both sides. Deep inguinal lymphadenectomy should be performed only in cases where: primary tumor is located centrally in case of cancer in the early stages, in advanced stage and in patients with metastases in the superficial nodes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an alternative method that can be offered to patients with early-stage vulvar cancer located laterally. Lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer is beneficial in stages I G3, II and III. In stages I G1 and G2 an increase in the survival time has not been shown. The cervical cancer stage IB -IIA removal of para-aortic lymph nodes (to the mesenteric artery) is indicated in patients with large tumors and suspected or known disease in the pelvic nodes. In patients in whom diagnostic imaging studies have not shown metastasis in para-aortic and pelvic lymph nodes or distant metastasis, para-aortic lymphadenectomy can be omitted. Further randomized studies are needed to elucidate the necessity and extent of lymphadenectomy in given gynecological cancers.

Abstract

Lymphadenectomy is an integral part of gynecological cancer surgery, however there is still lack of standardization in the terminology used. In the current literature several types of surgical procedures for pelvic lymph nodes dissection are recognized. Complete pelvic lymphadenectomy is defined as the removal of all fatty lymphatic tissue from the predicted areas of high incidence of lymph nodes with possible metastatic involvement. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy is defined as the removal of all lymphatic tissue from the aortic region. The latter is divided into two levels: the lower - up to the inferior mesenteric artery and the upper - up to the left renal vein. Another classification divided pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomy into three classes. Class I is defined as the removal of the chosen lymph nodes, class II as the removal of lymph nodes located ventrally and laterally to the large retroperitoneal pelvic vessels, obturator nerves and laterally to the aorta and the inferior vena cava, whereas class III as the complete removal of lymphatic tissue surrounding the iliac vessels, obturator pits, dorsally to the obturator nerve and the presacral lymph tissue around the aorta and the inferior vena cava. In each gynecological cancer, depending on the severity of the disease different procedures are applied concerning lymphadenectomy. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer systematic lymphadenectomy prolongs the survival rate. Omission of systematic lymphadenectomy can be considered only for patients with mucinous carcinoma G1 level. In the case of vulvar cancer, removal of pelvic, iliac and obturator lymph nodes is inappropriate as it has not been proven to result in an increased survival rate. Inguinal lymphadenectomy in this cancer depends on the stage and location of the primary tumor - at an early stage vulvar cancer located laterally a superficial, unilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy can be performed, if the primary lesion is located centrally an inguinal lymphadenectomy should be performed on both sides. Deep inguinal lymphadenectomy should be performed only in cases where: primary tumor is located centrally in case of cancer in the early stages, in advanced stage and in patients with metastases in the superficial nodes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an alternative method that can be offered to patients with early-stage vulvar cancer located laterally. Lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer is beneficial in stages I G3, II and III. In stages I G1 and G2 an increase in the survival time has not been shown. The cervical cancer stage IB -IIA removal of para-aortic lymph nodes (to the mesenteric artery) is indicated in patients with large tumors and suspected or known disease in the pelvic nodes. In patients in whom diagnostic imaging studies have not shown metastasis in para-aortic and pelvic lymph nodes or distant metastasis, para-aortic lymphadenectomy can be omitted. Further randomized studies are needed to elucidate the necessity and extent of lymphadenectomy in given gynecological cancers.
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Keywords

lymphadenectomy, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer

About this article
Title

Therapeutic and prognostic value of lymphadenectomy in gynecological oncology

Journal

Ginekologia Polska

Issue

Vol 84, No 7 (2013)

DOI

10.17772/gp/1616

Bibliographic record

Ginekol Pol 2013;84(7).

Keywords

lymphadenectomy
cervical cancer
endometrial cancer

Authors

Katarzyna Perżyło
Paweł Miotła
Ernest Lis
Tomasz Rechberger

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