Vol 84, No 9 (2013)

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Characteristics of selected clinical features in BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with breast cancer undergoing preventive female genital tract surgeries

Janusz Menkiszak, Anita Chudecka-Głaz, Jacek Gronwald, Ryszard Bedner, Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska, Małgorzata Wężowska, Dorota Zielińska, Izabella Rzepka-Górska
DOI: 10.17772/gp/1636
Ginekol Pol 2013;84(9).


Aim: Evaluation of patient age and time of the prophylactic surgery, as well as incidence of genital cancers and precancerous states observed in histopathology of the postoperative material from BRCA1 gene mutation carriers previously treated for breast cancer. Material and methods: 206 carriers of one of the three most common BRCA1 gene mutations (5382insC, C61G and 4153delA) in the Polish population, who were offered the option of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. The study group comprised 85 patients with the diagnosis of breast cancer before gynecological preventive surgery. The study group was further divided into two subgroups for more detailed assessment of the tested variables. The first subgroup included 67 patients with breast cancer (unilateral or bilateral synchronous). The second subgroup included 18 patients with bilateral metachronous (the second diagnosis of breast cancer was at least 12 months after the first breast cancer diagnosis). The control group consisted of 121 patients with no cancerous lesions before preventive gynecologic surgery. The patients undergoing prophylactic treatment had no prior symptoms in female sexual organ and no changes in the diagnostic tests. Results: The patients with a history of breast cancer underwent genetic testing and preventive surgery of the genital tract at a significantly later age than controls (respectively, p = 0.0003, p = 0.0006). The patients with bilateral metachronous breast cancer underwent preventive surgery significantly earlier (p = 0.03). There was a trend indicating a 2.5 times higher risk of developing ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers who had already been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, when compared to women without breast cancer diagnosis. The incidence of other genital cancers and precancerous states in BRCA1 gene mutation carriers with history of breast cancer was not statistically significant as compared to controls. Data on the clinical stage, morphological grade, histological type, age and type of pathology, and the type of BRCA1 gene mutation did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: Each patient diagnosed with breast cancer should be strongly recommended a genetic test to reduce adverse consequences resulting from postponing the test and, if applicable, the preventive operation until later in life. Preventive surgery should be considered especially in BRCA1 gene mutation carriers previously treated for breast cancer because of the increased risk of ovarian cancer.

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