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Vol 86, No 12 (2015)
ARTICLES
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Placenta percreta - serious obstetric complication despite the correct diagnosis - a case report

Karolina Gruca-Stryjak, Mariola Ropacka-Lesiak, Grzegorz H. Bręborowicz
DOI: 10.17772/gp/60833
·
Ginekol Pol 2015;86(12).

open access

Vol 86, No 12 (2015)
ARTICLES

Abstract

This paper presents a case of a pregnant woman with a history of two cesarean sections. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of vaginal bleeding. The ultrasound revealed a placenta covering the internal os. The placenta was characterized by heterogeneous echogenicity, with visible irregular hypoechogenic areas and blurred border between the placenta and the cervix. Rich vascularity was observed on the border of the placenta, urethra and the urinary bladder. Cystoscopy showed severe congestion around the urethra. On the back wall of the bladder a slightly increased vascularity was seen, which did not allow to confirm or exclude placental ingrowth in the urinary bladder. At 38 weeks, the patient was scheduled for an elective cesarean section. A classic perpendicular incision and leaving the placenta in the uterine cavity were proposed. After opening the abdomen, a strong vascularization in the region of lower part of the uterus and the urinary bladder was seen. Uterine incision in the fundus and the posterior wall was performed. A female fetus (weight: 2950g, Apgar: 10,10) was born. Then, the umbilical cord was ligated with non-absorbable suture and inserted back into the uterus. However, due to the presence of abundant and persistent vaginal bleeding during the next few minutes, conversion to obstetric hysterectomy was required. During relaparotomy, fragments of the placenta appeared on the right side after sliding the urinary bladder. The bladder and the left ureter were damaged during surgery. The urinary bladder was sewn after removal of the uterus. Next, the urologist anastomosed end-to-end the left ureter on the pigtail catheter. In the third hour of operation, cardiac arrest was caused by ventricular fibrillation. Immediate resuscitation with defibrillation allowed to restore normal function of the cardiovascular system. Total blood loss during the operation was 3000-4000 ml. During surgery,10 units of packed RBCs, 7 units of fresh frozen plasma, and 4 units of cryoprecipitate were transfused. The patient received antibiotics and anticoagulation therapy. Polyuria was diagnosed in the following days of puerperium, accompanied by electrolyte disturbances in serum and urine. The patient was treated with vasopressin and the electrolyte disturbances were corrected. On day 10 postpartum, the urinary catheter was removed, and clear, significant improvement and stabilization of renal function and patient health were obtained. The patient was discharged from the hospital on day 19 of the puerperium. In summary, it is clear that the steadily increasing rate of cesarean deliveries may result in the future in an increased number of abnormal placentation cases. Abnormal placentation is one of the most important risk factors of severe obstetric complications, including perinatal massive hemorrhage, which can lead to abnormal organ perfusion with cardiac arrest. Therefore, prenatal diagnosis and identification of abnormal placentation are vital in order to plan adequately the date, place, and mode of delivery, as well as to ensure the availability of highly qualified specialists in the field of obstetrics and anesthesia, and organize sufficient amount of blood products and blood substitutes

Abstract

This paper presents a case of a pregnant woman with a history of two cesarean sections. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of vaginal bleeding. The ultrasound revealed a placenta covering the internal os. The placenta was characterized by heterogeneous echogenicity, with visible irregular hypoechogenic areas and blurred border between the placenta and the cervix. Rich vascularity was observed on the border of the placenta, urethra and the urinary bladder. Cystoscopy showed severe congestion around the urethra. On the back wall of the bladder a slightly increased vascularity was seen, which did not allow to confirm or exclude placental ingrowth in the urinary bladder. At 38 weeks, the patient was scheduled for an elective cesarean section. A classic perpendicular incision and leaving the placenta in the uterine cavity were proposed. After opening the abdomen, a strong vascularization in the region of lower part of the uterus and the urinary bladder was seen. Uterine incision in the fundus and the posterior wall was performed. A female fetus (weight: 2950g, Apgar: 10,10) was born. Then, the umbilical cord was ligated with non-absorbable suture and inserted back into the uterus. However, due to the presence of abundant and persistent vaginal bleeding during the next few minutes, conversion to obstetric hysterectomy was required. During relaparotomy, fragments of the placenta appeared on the right side after sliding the urinary bladder. The bladder and the left ureter were damaged during surgery. The urinary bladder was sewn after removal of the uterus. Next, the urologist anastomosed end-to-end the left ureter on the pigtail catheter. In the third hour of operation, cardiac arrest was caused by ventricular fibrillation. Immediate resuscitation with defibrillation allowed to restore normal function of the cardiovascular system. Total blood loss during the operation was 3000-4000 ml. During surgery,10 units of packed RBCs, 7 units of fresh frozen plasma, and 4 units of cryoprecipitate were transfused. The patient received antibiotics and anticoagulation therapy. Polyuria was diagnosed in the following days of puerperium, accompanied by electrolyte disturbances in serum and urine. The patient was treated with vasopressin and the electrolyte disturbances were corrected. On day 10 postpartum, the urinary catheter was removed, and clear, significant improvement and stabilization of renal function and patient health were obtained. The patient was discharged from the hospital on day 19 of the puerperium. In summary, it is clear that the steadily increasing rate of cesarean deliveries may result in the future in an increased number of abnormal placentation cases. Abnormal placentation is one of the most important risk factors of severe obstetric complications, including perinatal massive hemorrhage, which can lead to abnormal organ perfusion with cardiac arrest. Therefore, prenatal diagnosis and identification of abnormal placentation are vital in order to plan adequately the date, place, and mode of delivery, as well as to ensure the availability of highly qualified specialists in the field of obstetrics and anesthesia, and organize sufficient amount of blood products and blood substitutes
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Keywords

placenta percreta / postpartum hemorrhage / obstetrical hysterectomy /, / cardiac arrest / renal failure

About this article
Title

Placenta percreta - serious obstetric complication despite the correct diagnosis - a case report

Journal

Ginekologia Polska

Issue

Vol 86, No 12 (2015)

DOI

10.17772/gp/60833

Bibliographic record

Ginekol Pol 2015;86(12).

Keywords

placenta percreta / postpartum hemorrhage / obstetrical hysterectomy /
/ cardiac arrest / renal failure

Authors

Karolina Gruca-Stryjak
Mariola Ropacka-Lesiak
Grzegorz H. Bręborowicz

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