Vol 6, No 4 (2020)
Review paper
Published online: 2020-12-21

open access

Page views 10520
Article views/downloads 41
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

The influence of COVID-19 on the skin: manifestations of infection, drug eruptions and contact dermatitis

Michał Niedźwiedź1, Małgorzata Dorota Skibińska1
Forum Dermatologicum 2020;6(4):102-107.

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 infection is currently one of the major health problems worldwide. Cutaneous manifestations related to COVID-19 affect from 5 to 24% of patients and are described as pseudo-chilblain, maculopapular, urticarial, vesicular, purpuric and necrotic. Physicians’ attention was drawn to the occurrence of symptoms resembling those of Kawasaki disease. Majority of the medications used in COVID-19 therapy have antiviral and/or immunomodulatory properties and may cause side effects including drug rashes. The necessity of personal protective equipment usage among not only healthcare workers but also in the general population causes the more frequent occurrence of contact and allergic dermatitis. The study aims to present current knowledge on all aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection related to the skin that dermatologists may encounter.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF (Polish) Download PDF file

References

  1. Harapan H, Itoh N, Yufika A, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A literature review. J Infect Public Health. 2020; 13(5): 667–673.
  2. Galván Casas C, Català A, Carretero Hernández G, et al. Classification of the cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19: a rapid prospective nationwide consensus study in Spain with 375 cases. Br J Dermatol. 2020; 183(1): 71–77.
  3. Elmas ÖF, Demirbaş A, Özyurt K, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19: A review of the published literature. Dermatol Ther. 2020; 33(4): e13696.
  4. Hui D, Zumla A. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 2019; 33(4): 869–889.
  5. Azhar EI, Hui DSC, Memish ZA, et al. The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019; 33(4): 891–905.
  6. Recalcati S. Cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19: a first perspective. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020; 34(5): e212–e213.
  7. Askin O, Altunkalem RN, Altinisik DD, et al. Cutaneous manifestations in hospitalized patients diagnosed as COVID-19. Dermatol Ther. 2020 [Epub ahead of print]: e13896.
  8. Tang K, Wang Y, Zhang H, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A brief review. Dermatol Ther. 2020; 33(4): e13528.
  9. Freeman EE, McMahon DE, Lipoff JB, et al. The spectrum of COVID-19-associated dermatologic manifestations: An international registry of 716 patients from 31 countries. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 83(4): 1118–1129.
  10. Suchonwanit P, Leerunyakul K, Kositkuljorn C. Cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19: Lessons learned from current evidence. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 83(1): e57–e60.
  11. Tammaro A, Adebanjo GAR, Parisella FR, et al. Cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19: the experiences of Barcelona and Rome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020; 34(7): e306–e307.
  12. Martinez-Lopez A, Cuenca-Barrales C, Montero-Vilchez T, et al. Review of adverse cutaneous reactions of pharmacologic interventions for COVID-19: A guide for the dermatologist. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 83(6): 1738–1748.
  13. Gómez-Fernández C, López-Sundh AE, González-Vela C, et al. High prevalence of cryofibrinogenemia in patients with chilblains during the COVID-19 outbreak. Int J Dermatol. 2020; 59(12): 1475–1484.
  14. Andina D, Belloni-Fortina A, Bodemer C, et al. ESPD Group for the Skin Manifestations of COVID-19. Skin manifestations of COVID-19 in children: Part 1. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
  15. Punyaratabandhu P, Chirachanakul P. Cutaneous eruption in COVID-19-infected patients in Thailand: An observational descriptive study. J Dermatol. 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
  16. Daneshgaran G, Dubin DP, Gould DJ. Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: An Evidence-Based Review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2020; 21(5): 627–639.
  17. Mirza FN, Malik AA, Omer SB, et al. Dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19: a comprehensive systematic review. Int J Dermatol. 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
  18. Miot HA, Ianhez M, Müller Ramos P. Self-reported cutaneous manifestations in 1429 Brazilian COVID-19-infected patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
  19. Nuno-Gonzalez A, Martin-Carrillo P, Magaletsky K, et al. Prevalence of mucocutaneous manifestations in 666 patients with COVID-19 in a field hospital in Spain: oral and palmoplantar findings. Br J Dermatol. 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
  20. Garduño-Soto M, Choreño-Parra JA, Cazarin-Barrientos J. Dermatological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection: mechanisms and manifestations. Arch Dermatol Res. 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
  21. Fattori A, Cribier B, Chenard MP, et al. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: clinical and histological findings. Hum Pathol. 2020 [Epub ahead of print]; 107: 39–45.
  22. Harnden A, Tulloh R, Burgner D. Kawasaki disease. BMJ. 2014; 17: 349.
  23. Jones VG, Mills M, Suarez D, et al. COVID-19 and Kawasaki Disease: Novel Virus and Novel Case. Hosp Pediatr. 2020; 10(6): 537–540.
  24. Koné-Paut I, Cimaz R. Is it Kawasaki shock syndrome, Kawasaki-like disease or pediatric inflammatory multisystem disease? The importance of semantic in the era of COVID-19 pandemic. RMD Open. 2020; 6(2).
  25. Iio K, Uda K, Hataya H, et al. Kawasaki disease or Kawasaki‐like disease: Influence of SARS‐CoV‐2 infections in Japan. Acta Paediatr. 2020.
  26. Ebina-Shibuya R, Namkoong H, Shibuya Y, et al. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) with COVID-19: Insights from simultaneous familial Kawasaki Disease cases. Int J Infect Dis. 2020; 97: 371–373.
  27. Manjaly Thomas ZR, Leuppi-Taegtmeyer A, Jamiolkowski D, et al. Emerging treatments in COVID-19: Adverse drug reactions including drug hypersensitivities. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020; 146(4): 786–789.
  28. Schwartz RA, Janniger CK. Generalized pustular figurate erythema: A newly delineated severe cutaneous drug reaction linked with hydroxychloroquine. Dermatol Ther. 2020; 33(3): e13380.
  29. Suarez-Valle A, Fernandez-Nieto D, Melian-Olivera A, et al. Comment on "Generalized pustular figurate erythema: A newly delineated severe cutaneous drug reaction linked with hydroxychloroquine": Report of a COVID-19 patient with particular findings. Dermatol Ther. 2020 [Epub ahead of print]: e13852.
  30. Mazan P, Lesiak A, Skibiñska M, et al. Maculopapular rash in COVID-19 patient treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2020; 37(3): 435–437.
  31. Pei S, Xue Y, Zhao S, et al. Occupational skin conditions on the front line: a survey among 484 Chinese healthcare professionals caring for Covid-19 patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020; 34(8): e354–e357.
  32. Lin P, Zhu S, Huang Y, et al. Adverse skin reactions among healthcare workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak: a survey in Wuhan and its surrounding regions. Br J Dermatol. 2020; 183(1): 190–192.
  33. Mawhirt SL, Frankel D, Diaz AM. Cutaneous Manifestations in Adult Patients with COVID-19 and Dermatologic Conditions Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Health Care Workers. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2020; 20(12): 75.
  34. Beiu C, Mihai M, Popa L, et al. Frequent Hand Washing for COVID-19 Prevention Can Cause Hand Dermatitis: Management Tips. Cureus. 2020; 12(4): e7506.