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Original article
Submitted: 2021-05-17
Accepted: 2021-06-12
Published online: 2021-08-24
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Analysis of gender differences on pyriform aperture of human skulls using geometric morphometric method

A. Sarac-Hadzihalilovic1, Z. Ajanovic1, I. Hasanbegovic1, S. Šljuka2, M. Rakanović-Todić3, I. Aganovic4, I. Prazina5, S. Maleskic Kapo3, R. Hadziselimovic6
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0080
·
Pubmed: 34608986
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  2. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  3. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  4. Department of Imunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  5. University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  6. Academician, Prof. Emeritus, Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Sarajevo (INGEB), University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2021-05-17
Accepted: 2021-06-12
Published online: 2021-08-24

Abstract

Background: Piriform aperture is anterior opening of the nasal cavity formed by bones of the viscerocranium and knowledge about differences between genders is important for forensic scientists, anthropologists, orthopedists, neurosurgeons and vascular surgeons. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences of piriform aperture on 3D models of human skulls originating from Bosnian population using the geometric morphometric method.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 211 3D models of human skulls of known gender. 3D models were obtained by laser scanning. We analyzed the gender differences of piriform aperture using geometric morphometrics method. On 3D models we marked four landmarks on piriform aperture in the Landmark editor program, after which we analyzed its gender differences in MorphoJ program.

Results: The first PCA axis described 40.398% of total variability of piriform aperture. The greatest gender variability was present in the position of the landmark rhinion. Discriminant functional analysis of the shape and size of the piriform aperture allowed the gender determination with 64.03% accuracy for male and 70.83% accuracy for female gender. The size of the piriform aperture showed a statistically significant difference between genders. Discriminant functional analysis of the shape of the piriform aperture without affecting size enabled gender determination with 59.71% accuracy for male and 62.5% accuracy for female. Conclusions: Analysis showed statistically significant differences in the shape and size of piriform aperture between genders. The accuracy for gender determination based on piriform aperture was higher in females.

Abstract

Background: Piriform aperture is anterior opening of the nasal cavity formed by bones of the viscerocranium and knowledge about differences between genders is important for forensic scientists, anthropologists, orthopedists, neurosurgeons and vascular surgeons. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences of piriform aperture on 3D models of human skulls originating from Bosnian population using the geometric morphometric method.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 211 3D models of human skulls of known gender. 3D models were obtained by laser scanning. We analyzed the gender differences of piriform aperture using geometric morphometrics method. On 3D models we marked four landmarks on piriform aperture in the Landmark editor program, after which we analyzed its gender differences in MorphoJ program.

Results: The first PCA axis described 40.398% of total variability of piriform aperture. The greatest gender variability was present in the position of the landmark rhinion. Discriminant functional analysis of the shape and size of the piriform aperture allowed the gender determination with 64.03% accuracy for male and 70.83% accuracy for female gender. The size of the piriform aperture showed a statistically significant difference between genders. Discriminant functional analysis of the shape of the piriform aperture without affecting size enabled gender determination with 59.71% accuracy for male and 62.5% accuracy for female. Conclusions: Analysis showed statistically significant differences in the shape and size of piriform aperture between genders. The accuracy for gender determination based on piriform aperture was higher in females.

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Keywords

sex determination, human skull, nasal region, geometric morphometry

About this article
Title

Analysis of gender differences on pyriform aperture of human skulls using geometric morphometric method

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2021-08-24

Page views

447

Article views/downloads

308

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0080

Pubmed

34608986

Keywords

sex determination
human skull
nasal region
geometric morphometry

Authors

A. Sarac-Hadzihalilovic
Z. Ajanovic
I. Hasanbegovic
S. Šljuka
M. Rakanović-Todić
I. Aganovic
I. Prazina
S. Maleskic Kapo
R. Hadziselimovic

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