open access

Ahead of Print
Original article
Published online: 2021-05-17
Submitted: 2021-03-05
Accepted: 2021-04-29
Get Citation

Extracranial guiding structures for navigation to specific topographical sectors of the equine neopallium: an anatomical investigation performing three-dimensional distance measurements in adult warm-blooded horses

F. Heun, L. Böing, J. Theunert, H. Gasse
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0050
·
Pubmed: 34018176

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2021-05-17
Submitted: 2021-03-05
Accepted: 2021-04-29

Abstract

This basically anatomical study focuses on two items; firstly, the establishment of a system for the cartographic subdivision of the neopallium; secondly, the topographical correlation of extracranial landmarks and intracranial sites on the neopallium. The surface of the neopallium was subdivided into 15 Sectors with reference to a newly introduced pattern of Primary Sulci. The topographical link between extracranial landmarks and certain intracranial sites (i.e., neopallium Sectors) was elaborated by using a simple stereotactic device and a computer-assisted measurement device. Measurements were performed between points on the head´s outer surface and on the isolated brain. The introduction of an anatomical three-dimensional Coordinate System was an essential key issue for this investigation. This setting facilitated the measurements and calculations of the so-called Indirect Distances that were characterized by their alignment along the three orthogonal axes (x, y, z) of the anatomical Coordinate System. The inter-individual comparison (16 adult horses [Equus caballus]) of the Indirect Distances revealed that each Sector Center lay within a distinct morphometric Residence Area. The measured and calculated data also showed that each Sector Center could be assigned to its proper extracranial landmark that – in comparison with other landmarks – was best suited for the optimal allocation of the Sector Center Point.

Abstract

This basically anatomical study focuses on two items; firstly, the establishment of a system for the cartographic subdivision of the neopallium; secondly, the topographical correlation of extracranial landmarks and intracranial sites on the neopallium. The surface of the neopallium was subdivided into 15 Sectors with reference to a newly introduced pattern of Primary Sulci. The topographical link between extracranial landmarks and certain intracranial sites (i.e., neopallium Sectors) was elaborated by using a simple stereotactic device and a computer-assisted measurement device. Measurements were performed between points on the head´s outer surface and on the isolated brain. The introduction of an anatomical three-dimensional Coordinate System was an essential key issue for this investigation. This setting facilitated the measurements and calculations of the so-called Indirect Distances that were characterized by their alignment along the three orthogonal axes (x, y, z) of the anatomical Coordinate System. The inter-individual comparison (16 adult horses [Equus caballus]) of the Indirect Distances revealed that each Sector Center lay within a distinct morphometric Residence Area. The measured and calculated data also showed that each Sector Center could be assigned to its proper extracranial landmark that – in comparison with other landmarks – was best suited for the optimal allocation of the Sector Center Point.

Get Citation

Keywords

brain cartography, encephalometry, craniometry, landmark

About this article
Title

Extracranial guiding structures for navigation to specific topographical sectors of the equine neopallium: an anatomical investigation performing three-dimensional distance measurements in adult warm-blooded horses

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2021-05-17

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0050

Pubmed

34018176

Keywords

brain cartography
encephalometry
craniometry
landmark

Authors

F. Heun
L. Böing
J. Theunert
H. Gasse

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl