open access

Vol 81, No 2 (2022)
Original article
Submitted: 2021-04-16
Accepted: 2021-05-04
Published online: 2021-05-17
Get Citation

Assessment of radiographic morphology of mandibular condyles: a radiographic study

A. H. Shaikh1, S. Ahmed1, A. R. Ahmed2, G. Das2, M. Taqi3, S. Nisar4, O. Khan4
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0049
·
Pubmed: 34018177
·
Folia Morphol 2022;81(2):481-486.
Affiliations
  1. Dow International Dental College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  2. College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  3. Dow Dental College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  4. DrIshratulebad Khan Institute of Oral and Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

open access

Vol 81, No 2 (2022)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2021-04-16
Accepted: 2021-05-04
Published online: 2021-05-17

Abstract

Background: Panoramic radiographs are the most common radiographic tool used by the dental clinicians to evaluate teeth, mandible and other related structures of the jaws. Mandibular condyle is an important anatomical landmark for facial growth, expressed in an upward and backward direction. The presentation of mandibular condyle differs widely among different group of ages and individuals.
Materials and methods: The retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to March 2019 at Dow International Dental College Karachi that includes radiographic evaluation of 500 mandibular condyles. All retrievable orthopantomograms were obtained and data were extracted regarding age, gender and condylar morphology.
Results: The morphological appearances of mandibular condyle have great variation among different age groups and subjects. Normally, we recognise five basic shapes i.e. oval, bird beak, crooked finger, diamond and mixed. Out of 250 pair of condylar heads that were evaluated, 50% were oval, 40% bird beak, 4.8% crooked finger and diamond 4.8%.
Conclusions: All four morphological types of mandibular condyles were observed and the oval shape condyles were most prevalent among both genders and all age groups. In future studies, the inclusion of other parameters and large sample size may provide unique information.

Abstract

Background: Panoramic radiographs are the most common radiographic tool used by the dental clinicians to evaluate teeth, mandible and other related structures of the jaws. Mandibular condyle is an important anatomical landmark for facial growth, expressed in an upward and backward direction. The presentation of mandibular condyle differs widely among different group of ages and individuals.
Materials and methods: The retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to March 2019 at Dow International Dental College Karachi that includes radiographic evaluation of 500 mandibular condyles. All retrievable orthopantomograms were obtained and data were extracted regarding age, gender and condylar morphology.
Results: The morphological appearances of mandibular condyle have great variation among different age groups and subjects. Normally, we recognise five basic shapes i.e. oval, bird beak, crooked finger, diamond and mixed. Out of 250 pair of condylar heads that were evaluated, 50% were oval, 40% bird beak, 4.8% crooked finger and diamond 4.8%.
Conclusions: All four morphological types of mandibular condyles were observed and the oval shape condyles were most prevalent among both genders and all age groups. In future studies, the inclusion of other parameters and large sample size may provide unique information.

Get Citation

Keywords

mandibular condyle, orthopantomogram, temporomandibular joint morphology

About this article
Title

Assessment of radiographic morphology of mandibular condyles: a radiographic study

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 81, No 2 (2022)

Article type

Original article

Pages

481-486

Published online

2021-05-17

Page views

1447

Article views/downloads

1034

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0049

Pubmed

34018177

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2022;81(2):481-486.

Keywords

mandibular condyle
orthopantomogram
temporomandibular joint morphology

Authors

A. H. Shaikh
S. Ahmed
A. R. Ahmed
G. Das
M. Taqi
S. Nisar
O. Khan

References (19)
  1. Ahmed MA, Subramaniam N. Prevalence of morphological variation of condyle in patients undergoing routine dental treatment-A retrospective orthopantomographic study. Drug Invention Today. 2019; 12(9).
  2. Ahn SJ, Kim TW, Lee DY, et al. Evaluation of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint by panoramic radiographs compared with magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006; 129(4): 479–485.
  3. Al-Saedi AI, Riad AT, AL-Jasim N, et al. A panoramic study of the morphology of mandibular condyle in a sample of population from basrah city. Int J Morphol. 2020; 38(6): 1707–1712.
  4. Anisuzzaman MM, Khan S, Khan M, et al. Evaluation of mandibular condylar morphology by orthopantomogram in bangladeshi population. Update Dental Coll J. 2019; 9(1): 29–31.
  5. Ari-Demirkaya A, Biren S, Ozkan H, et al. Comparison of deep bite and open bite cases: normative data for condylar positions, paths and radiographic appearances. J Oral Rehabil. 2004; 31(3): 213–224.
  6. Choudhary A, Ahuja US, Rathore A, et al. Association of temporomandibular joint morphology in patients with and without temporomandibular joint dysfunction: A cone-beam computed tomography based study. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2020; 17(5): 338–346.
  7. Epstein JB, Caldwell J, Black G. The utility of panoramic imaging of the temporomandibular joint in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001; 92(2): 236–239.
  8. Hegde S, Praveen BN, Shetty SR. Morphological and radiological variations of mandibular condyles in health and diseases: a systematic review. Dentistry. 2013; 03(01).
  9. Honda E, Yoshino N, Sasaki T. Condylar appearance in panoramic radiograms of asymptomatic subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorders. Oral Radiol. 1994; 10(2): 43–53.
  10. Jawahar A, Maragathavalli G. Analysis of condylar morphological variations using digital panoramic radiographs-a retrospective study. Indian J Public Health Res Develop. 2019; 10(11): 3450.
  11. Juniper RP. The shape of the condyle and position of the meniscus in temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994; 32(2): 71–76.
  12. Katsavrias EG, Halazonetis DJ. Condyle and fossa shape in Class II and Class III skeletal patterns: a morphometric tomographic study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005; 128(3): 337–346.
  13. Momjian A, Courvoisier D, Kiliaridis S, et al. Reliability of computational measurement of the condyles on digital panoramic radiographs. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2011; 40(7): 444–450.
  14. Ribeiro E, Sanches M, Alonso L, et al. Shape and Symmetry of Human Condyle and Mandibular Fossa. Int J Odontostomatol. 2015; 9(1): 65–72.
  15. Singh B, Kumar NR, Balan A, et al. Evaluation of normal morphology of mandibular condyle: a radiographic survey. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2020; 10: 51.
  16. Sonal V, Sandeep P, Kapil G, et al. Evaluation of condylar morphology using panoramic radiography. J Adv Clin Res Ins. 2016; 3: 5–8.
  17. Valladares Neto J, Estrela C, Bueno MR, et al. Mandibular condyle dimensional changes in subjects from 3 to 20 years of age using cone-beam computed tomography: a preliminary study. Dental Press J Orthodontics. 2010; 15(5): 172–81.
  18. Yalcin ED, Ararat E. Cone-Beam computed tomography study of mandibular condylar morphology. J Craniofac Surg. 2019; 30(8): 2621–2624.
  19. Yale SH, Allison BD, Hauptfuehrer JD. An epidemiological assessment of mandibular condyle morphology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1966; 21(2): 169–177.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl