open access

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)
Case report
Submitted: 2020-09-19
Accepted: 2021-01-22
Published online: 2021-02-23
Get Citation

An extremely rare complete bilateral duplication of inferior vena cava in a male cadaver: anatomy, embryology and clinical relevance

S. Shaheen1, K. I. Alyahya1, A. F. El Fouhil1, E.E. A. Salama1, M. Atteya1, F. Elshaer2, H. Darwish1
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0016
·
Pubmed: 33634838
·
Folia Morphol 2022;81(1):247-253.
Affiliations
  1. Clinical Anatomy Lab., Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  2. King Khalid University Hospital, King Fahad Cardiac Centre, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

open access

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)
CASE REPORTS
Submitted: 2020-09-19
Accepted: 2021-01-22
Published online: 2021-02-23

Abstract

The study presented an extremely rare case of real complete bilateral duplication of inferior vena cava (IVC) in a male cadaver which has never been reported before. Both IVC had approximately the same diameter. The right IVC drained into the right atrium; the left IVC continued as hemiazygos vein and drained into the superior vena cava. Three anastomotic venous channels, a cranial preaortic, a middle and a caudal retroaortic, joined both vessels. Multiple variations in the way of drainage of posterior intercostal veins, on both sides, were also present. The present report invalidates an old classification defining the two vessels when joined at the level of the renal veins as complete bilateral duplication of IVC. Although the presence of combination of venous variations is extremely rare, awareness of such variations is essential for clinical and surgical procedures to avoid misdiagnosis and surgical complications.

Abstract

The study presented an extremely rare case of real complete bilateral duplication of inferior vena cava (IVC) in a male cadaver which has never been reported before. Both IVC had approximately the same diameter. The right IVC drained into the right atrium; the left IVC continued as hemiazygos vein and drained into the superior vena cava. Three anastomotic venous channels, a cranial preaortic, a middle and a caudal retroaortic, joined both vessels. Multiple variations in the way of drainage of posterior intercostal veins, on both sides, were also present. The present report invalidates an old classification defining the two vessels when joined at the level of the renal veins as complete bilateral duplication of IVC. Although the presence of combination of venous variations is extremely rare, awareness of such variations is essential for clinical and surgical procedures to avoid misdiagnosis and surgical complications.

Get Citation

Keywords

double inferior vena cava, rare variant, cadaveric study, clinical relevance, embryology

About this article
Title

An extremely rare complete bilateral duplication of inferior vena cava in a male cadaver: anatomy, embryology and clinical relevance

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)

Article type

Case report

Pages

247-253

Published online

2021-02-23

Page views

1783

Article views/downloads

794

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0016

Pubmed

33634838

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2022;81(1):247-253.

Keywords

double inferior vena cava
rare variant
cadaveric study
clinical relevance
embryology

Authors

S. Shaheen
K. I. Alyahya
A. F. El Fouhil
E.E. A. Salama
M. Atteya
F. Elshaer
H. Darwish

References (31)
  1. Abernethy J. Account of two instances of uncommon formation, in the viscera of the human body. Philos Trans R Soc London. 1993; 83: 59–66.
  2. Artico M, Lorenzini D, Mancini P, et al. Radiological evidence of anatomical variation of the inferior vena cava: report of two cases. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004; 26(2): 153–156.
  3. Banerjee A, Maharana S, Anil Kumar I. Duplication of the inferior vena cava – report of a rare congenital variation. IJAV. 2012; 5: 141–143.
  4. Bass JE, Redwine MD, Kramer LA, et al. Spectrum of congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava: cross-sectional imaging findings. Radiographics. 2000; 20(3): 639–652.
  5. Chen H, Emura S, Nagasaki S, et al. Double inferior vena cava with interiliac vein: a case report and literature review. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2012; 88(4): 147–151.
  6. Coco D, Cecchini S, Leanza S, et al. Inferior vena cava duplication: incidental case in a young woman. Case Rep Radiol. 2016; 2016: 3071873.
  7. Ghandour A, Partovi S, Karuppasamy K, et al. Congenital anomalies of the IVC-embryological perspective and clinical relevance. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2016; 6(6): 482–492.
  8. Itoh M, Moriyama H, Tokunaga Y, et al. Embryological consideration of drainage of the left testicular vein into the ipsilateral renal vein: analysis of cases of a double inferior vena cava. Int J Androl. 2001; 24(3): 142–152.
  9. Kandpal H, Sharma R, Gamangatti S, et al. Imaging the inferior vena cava: a road less traveled. Radiographics. 2008; 28(3): 669–689.
  10. Khaledpour C, Matanovic P, Rienäcker J, et al. An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in combination with duplication of the inferior vena cava (IVC), the right renal artery (RRA) and the right renal vein (RRV). Surg Radiol Anat. 1990; 12(1): 73–76.
  11. Kudo FA, Nishibe T, Miyazaki K, et al. Left renal vein anomaly associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: report of a case. Surg Today. 2003; 33(8): 609–611.
  12. Lamparello BM, Erickson CR, Kulthia A, et al. Congenital anomaly of the inferior vena cava and factor V Leiden mutation predisposing to deep vein thrombosis. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014; 10: 609–613.
  13. Lewis SJ. Observations on a double inferior vena cava: A case report with a literature review. Clin Anat. 1992; 5(3): 227–233.
  14. Machnicki A, Grzybiak M. Variations in testicular arteries in fetuses and adults. Folia Morphol. 1997; 56(4): 277–285.
  15. Malaki M, Willis AP, Jones RG. Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava. Clin Radiol. 2012; 67(2): 165–171.
  16. McNeil JC, Whipp KP, Lambert HW. Unique variant of a double inferior vena cava with interiliac communication: Review of clinical and surgical relevance. Int J Anat Var. 2016; 9: 35–38.
  17. Moore K, Persaud T. The Developing Human. Clinically Oriented Embryology. 7th ed. Elsevier Science, USA 2003.
  18. Natsis K, Apostolidis S, Noussios G, et al. Duplication of the inferior vena cava: anatomy, embryology and classification proposal. Anat Sci Int. 2010; 85(1): 56–60.
  19. Ozdemir B, Aldur MM, Celik HH. Multiple variations in the azygos venous system: a preaortic interazygos vein and the absence of hemiazygos vein. Surg Radiol Anat. 2002; 24(1): 68–70.
  20. Perumal S, Subramaniam S. Missing inferior vena cava: report of a rare case. Int Surg J. 2019; 6(6): 2201.
  21. Petik B. Inferior vena cava anomalies and variations: imaging and rare clinical findings. Insights Imaging. 2015; 6(6): 631–639.
  22. Pineda D, Moudgill N, Eisenberg J, et al. An interesting anatomic variant of inferior vena cava duplication: case report and review of the literature. Vascular. 2013; 21(3): 163–167.
  23. Seema A, Singh M. Multiple variations of the azygos venous system: a case report. Int J Anat Var. 2013; 6: 34–35.
  24. Senecail B, Lefevre C, Person H, et al. Radiologic anatomy of duplication of the inferior vena cava: a trap in abdominal imaging. A report of 8 cases. Surg Radiol Anat. 1987; 9(2): 151–157.
  25. Takagi T, Nozaka Y, Ohsawa T. Double superior venae cavae with bilateral inferior venae cavae. Kaibogaku Zasshi. 1982; 57(1): 9–14.
  26. Tamizifar B, Seilani P, Zadeh MR. Duplication of the inferior vena cava and thrombosis: A rare case. J Res Med Sci. 2013; 18(10): 911–913.
  27. Tohno Y, Tohno S, Azuma C, et al. One case of the double inferior venae cavae found in a Japanese man. J Nara Med Assoc. 2006; 57(6): 193–197.
  28. Wagner J, Bogusch G. An abnormal pattern of blood vessels in the retroperitoneal space with a duplicated inferior vena cava in an adult: a case report. Surg Radiol Anat. 1993; 15(3): 201–205.
  29. Wang LT, Lo HC, Yu DS, et al. Ureteral obstruction caused by a duplicated anomaly of inferior vena cava. Int J Urol. 2005; 12(9): 842–844.
  30. Williams PL, Bannister H, Berry MM, Collins P, Dyson M, Dussek JE, Fergusson MWJ. eds. Gray’s Anatomy. 38th ed. Churchill Livingstone, London 1995.
  31. Xue HG, Yang CY, Asakawa M, et al. Duplication of the inferior vena cava associated with other variations. Anat Sci Int. 2007; 82(2): 121–125.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl