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Original article
Published online: 2021-02-09
Submitted: 2020-12-15
Accepted: 2021-01-19
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A comparative study on the morphology, radiography and computed tomography of the skull bones of barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and sambar deer (Rusa unicolor)

K. Keneisenuo, O. P. Choudhary, P. C. Kalita, S. Duro, A. Kalita, P. J. Doley, R. S. Arya, S. Debroy, P. Priyanka
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0015
·
Pubmed: 33577074

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2021-02-09
Submitted: 2020-12-15
Accepted: 2021-01-19

Abstract

Background: There is scanty information on the skull morphology of barking and sambar deer; thus the present study was designed to provide information on morphology, radiography and computed tomography of the skull bones of both deer species.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on twelve skulls of adult barking deer (n = 6) and sambar deer (n = 6) of either sex (n = 3 males and n = 3 females) collected from Aizawl Zoological Park, Aizawl, Mizoram. The skulls of both species were macerated as per the standard maceration techniques.

Results: The skull bones of both deer species were divided into a neurocranium and a viscerocranium. The neurocranium was comprised of occipital, sphenoid, temporal, frontal, parietal, interparietal and ethmoid bones. The viscerocranium consisted of nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, incisive, palatine, pterygoid, vomer, mandible, turbinates and hyoid bones. The cranial cavity was oval and elongated caudally. The orbit was round, complete in barking deer; however, it was oval, complete in sambar deer. The facial tuberosity was present caudal to infraorbital foramen and dorsally at superior third premolar tooth in barking deer whereas dorsally at the superior first molar tooth in sambar deer. The infraorbital foramina were small, elliptical and placed at the level of the superior first premolar tooth. The alveolus for a canine tooth was present rostrally in the maxilla of both species. Turbinates bones were visible and mandibular symphysis remained unossified on radiographs and computed tomography in both species. The radiographs of both species showed that the nasal canal was divided by the nasal septum. The computed tomographic scan demonstrated the paranasal, frontal and maxillary sinuses.

Conclusions: The present study is important in the comparative anatomy of ruminant species and may help the wildlife forensic officials to identify and differentiate the bones of these two species from those of other domestic and wild small ruminants.

Abstract

Background: There is scanty information on the skull morphology of barking and sambar deer; thus the present study was designed to provide information on morphology, radiography and computed tomography of the skull bones of both deer species.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on twelve skulls of adult barking deer (n = 6) and sambar deer (n = 6) of either sex (n = 3 males and n = 3 females) collected from Aizawl Zoological Park, Aizawl, Mizoram. The skulls of both species were macerated as per the standard maceration techniques.

Results: The skull bones of both deer species were divided into a neurocranium and a viscerocranium. The neurocranium was comprised of occipital, sphenoid, temporal, frontal, parietal, interparietal and ethmoid bones. The viscerocranium consisted of nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, incisive, palatine, pterygoid, vomer, mandible, turbinates and hyoid bones. The cranial cavity was oval and elongated caudally. The orbit was round, complete in barking deer; however, it was oval, complete in sambar deer. The facial tuberosity was present caudal to infraorbital foramen and dorsally at superior third premolar tooth in barking deer whereas dorsally at the superior first molar tooth in sambar deer. The infraorbital foramina were small, elliptical and placed at the level of the superior first premolar tooth. The alveolus for a canine tooth was present rostrally in the maxilla of both species. Turbinates bones were visible and mandibular symphysis remained unossified on radiographs and computed tomography in both species. The radiographs of both species showed that the nasal canal was divided by the nasal septum. The computed tomographic scan demonstrated the paranasal, frontal and maxillary sinuses.

Conclusions: The present study is important in the comparative anatomy of ruminant species and may help the wildlife forensic officials to identify and differentiate the bones of these two species from those of other domestic and wild small ruminants.

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Keywords

barking deer, sambar deer, skulls, morphology, radiography, computed tomography

About this article
Title

A comparative study on the morphology, radiography and computed tomography of the skull bones of barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and sambar deer (Rusa unicolor)

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2021-02-09

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0015

Pubmed

33577074

Keywords

barking deer
sambar deer
skulls
morphology
radiography
computed tomography

Authors

K. Keneisenuo
O. P. Choudhary
P. C. Kalita
S. Duro
A. Kalita
P. J. Doley
R. S. Arya
S. Debroy
P. Priyanka

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