open access

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)
Original article
Submitted: 2020-12-03
Accepted: 2021-01-17
Published online: 2021-01-29
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Cervicothoracic sympathetic system in the dog: new insights by the gross morphological description of each ganglion with its branches on each side

M. M. A. Abumandour1, B. G. Hanafy1, K. Morsy23, A. El-kott24, A. Shati2, E. Salah EL-Din35, N. F. Bassuoni1
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0009
·
Pubmed: 33559113
·
Folia Morphol 2022;81(1):20-30.
Affiliations
  1. Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
  2. Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  3. Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  4. Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt
  5. Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Bisha University, Bisha, Saudi Arabia

open access

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2020-12-03
Accepted: 2021-01-17
Published online: 2021-01-29

Abstract

Background: Much published data exists on the position of cervicothoracic ganglion, but a little published research has been done on the cervicothoracic system of dog. Herein, we illustrated topographical position and shape of each ganglion of cervicothoracic system to determine the distribution of nerves dispersing from them on two sides, left and right.
Materials and methods: Our work designed on the usage of 10 healthy adult dogs. Left cervicothoracic sympathetic system is represented by two ganglia: caudal and middle ganglion, while the right system is represented by three ganglia: caudal, middle cervical and small accessory ganglia.
Results: Left caudal cervical ganglion was elongated triangular, while the right one was elongated spindle in shape. Left caudal cervical ganglion was located on lateral surface of longus colli muscle, at the first intercostal space, while the right one was located at the level of the second rib. Left middle cervical ganglion was ovoid in shape and located at the first intercostal space, while the right one was located at the level of the second rib. There were two nerve trunks forming ansa subclavian trunk on both sides. There were three sympathetic-parasympathetic communicating branches on both sides.
Conclusions: Our study recorded the first observation of left pericardial branch in dog, which originated from the caudal angle of middle cervical ganglion. There was a small ganglion located on the lateral surface of trachea at the level of the first rib.

Abstract

Background: Much published data exists on the position of cervicothoracic ganglion, but a little published research has been done on the cervicothoracic system of dog. Herein, we illustrated topographical position and shape of each ganglion of cervicothoracic system to determine the distribution of nerves dispersing from them on two sides, left and right.
Materials and methods: Our work designed on the usage of 10 healthy adult dogs. Left cervicothoracic sympathetic system is represented by two ganglia: caudal and middle ganglion, while the right system is represented by three ganglia: caudal, middle cervical and small accessory ganglia.
Results: Left caudal cervical ganglion was elongated triangular, while the right one was elongated spindle in shape. Left caudal cervical ganglion was located on lateral surface of longus colli muscle, at the first intercostal space, while the right one was located at the level of the second rib. Left middle cervical ganglion was ovoid in shape and located at the first intercostal space, while the right one was located at the level of the second rib. There were two nerve trunks forming ansa subclavian trunk on both sides. There were three sympathetic-parasympathetic communicating branches on both sides.
Conclusions: Our study recorded the first observation of left pericardial branch in dog, which originated from the caudal angle of middle cervical ganglion. There was a small ganglion located on the lateral surface of trachea at the level of the first rib.

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Keywords

caudal cervical ganglion, middle cervical ganglion, accessory cervical ganglion, ansa subclavia, dog

About this article
Title

Cervicothoracic sympathetic system in the dog: new insights by the gross morphological description of each ganglion with its branches on each side

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)

Article type

Original article

Pages

20-30

Published online

2021-01-29

Page views

2114

Article views/downloads

1106

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0009

Pubmed

33559113

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2022;81(1):20-30.

Keywords

caudal cervical ganglion
middle cervical ganglion
accessory cervical ganglion
ansa subclavia
dog

Authors

M. M. A. Abumandour
B. G. Hanafy
K. Morsy
A. El-kott
A. Shati
E. Salah EL-Din
N. F. Bassuoni

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