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Original article
Published online: 2020-12-30
Submitted: 2020-09-24
Accepted: 2020-12-02
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The role of congenital malformations of the thoracic egress in the development of the syndrome

M. Artico, M. T. Santarelli, G. Stevanato, R. Cirocchi, V. D'Andrea, A. Nicolai, G. Cialone, G. Monteleone, I. Pindinello, S. Taurone
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2020.0152
·
Pubmed: 33438186

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2020-12-30
Submitted: 2020-09-24
Accepted: 2020-12-02

Abstract

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) represents a clinical condition caused by compression of the neurovascular structures that cross the thoracic outlet. TOS can be classified in: 1) NTOS (neurogenic TOS), 2) VTOS (venous TOS), 3) ATOS (arterial TOS). Many different causes can determine the Syndrome: Congenital Malformations, Traumas, and Functional Impairments. This manuscript reviews how the congenital malformations play an important role in adult age; however, TOS also affects patients of all ages. Radiological imaging like RX (radiography), MR (Magnetic Resonance) and CT (Computed Tomography) can provide useful information to assess TOS causes and decide a potential surgery.79% of the patientsincluded in the first two stages of NAV staging experienced excellent results with FKT; whereas patients included in the third and fourth stage of NAV staging were subject to surgery.The treatment of acute forms of TOS involves thrombolysis and anticoagulant therapy; surgery is appropriate for true neurogenic TOS, vascular TOS and in some cases when conservative treatment fails.

Abstract

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) represents a clinical condition caused by compression of the neurovascular structures that cross the thoracic outlet. TOS can be classified in: 1) NTOS (neurogenic TOS), 2) VTOS (venous TOS), 3) ATOS (arterial TOS). Many different causes can determine the Syndrome: Congenital Malformations, Traumas, and Functional Impairments. This manuscript reviews how the congenital malformations play an important role in adult age; however, TOS also affects patients of all ages. Radiological imaging like RX (radiography), MR (Magnetic Resonance) and CT (Computed Tomography) can provide useful information to assess TOS causes and decide a potential surgery.79% of the patientsincluded in the first two stages of NAV staging experienced excellent results with FKT; whereas patients included in the third and fourth stage of NAV staging were subject to surgery.The treatment of acute forms of TOS involves thrombolysis and anticoagulant therapy; surgery is appropriate for true neurogenic TOS, vascular TOS and in some cases when conservative treatment fails.

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Keywords

brachial plexus, subclavian artery, subclavian vein, neuromuscular bundle, first rib, anterior and middle scalene muscle, congenital malformation, clinical grading, interscalene triangle, costoclavicular triangle

About this article
Title

The role of congenital malformations of the thoracic egress in the development of the syndrome

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2020-12-30

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2020.0152

Pubmed

33438186

Keywords

brachial plexus
subclavian artery
subclavian vein
neuromuscular bundle
first rib
anterior and middle scalene muscle
congenital malformation
clinical grading
interscalene triangle
costoclavicular triangle

Authors

M. Artico
M. T. Santarelli
G. Stevanato
R. Cirocchi
V. D'Andrea
A. Nicolai
G. Cialone
G. Monteleone
I. Pindinello
S. Taurone

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