open access

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)
Case report
Submitted: 2020-09-24
Accepted: 2020-11-25
Published online: 2020-12-23
Get Citation

Unusual variability of the superficial venous system of the upper limb and its consequences for deep venous system

Z. M. Ziętek12
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2020.0147
·
Pubmed: 33438191
·
Folia Morphol 2022;81(1):254-257.
Affiliations
  1. Department of General Surgery and Transplantology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
  2. Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland

open access

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)
CASE REPORTS
Submitted: 2020-09-24
Accepted: 2020-11-25
Published online: 2020-12-23

Abstract

In our report we would like to present a variation of the two main superficial veins of the upper limb. In 21 (88%) explored upper limbs, the venous system showed a pattern similar to that presented in the anatomical textbook. However, in 4 (12%) others venous patterns differed from those already described. Especially in one of them the variant of the veins of the upper limb distinctly contrasted with the others. In that case, the basilic and cephalic vein, instead of the normal course to the arm where they should bypass the elbow pit, unexpectedly merged into one and formed one of the two brachial veins. Towards the axillary cavity it ran laterally over the entire arm regardless of the second brachial vein. In the armpit cavity, instead of connecting with the second one, it gave rise to an independent second vein — the accessory axillary vein. This uniqueness was based on that, independently from deep venous system, the superficial one formed their own net. The accessory axillary vein and the second brachial vein were completely formed by two main superficial veins: the basilic and cephalic vein. By describing this case we wanted to emphasize that in any surgical procedure on the upper limbs, especially on the venous system, there is a certain probability of encountering this anatomical variation. Another conclusion is that the catalogue of patterns of the venous system of the upper limb seems to be endless.

Abstract

In our report we would like to present a variation of the two main superficial veins of the upper limb. In 21 (88%) explored upper limbs, the venous system showed a pattern similar to that presented in the anatomical textbook. However, in 4 (12%) others venous patterns differed from those already described. Especially in one of them the variant of the veins of the upper limb distinctly contrasted with the others. In that case, the basilic and cephalic vein, instead of the normal course to the arm where they should bypass the elbow pit, unexpectedly merged into one and formed one of the two brachial veins. Towards the axillary cavity it ran laterally over the entire arm regardless of the second brachial vein. In the armpit cavity, instead of connecting with the second one, it gave rise to an independent second vein — the accessory axillary vein. This uniqueness was based on that, independently from deep venous system, the superficial one formed their own net. The accessory axillary vein and the second brachial vein were completely formed by two main superficial veins: the basilic and cephalic vein. By describing this case we wanted to emphasize that in any surgical procedure on the upper limbs, especially on the venous system, there is a certain probability of encountering this anatomical variation. Another conclusion is that the catalogue of patterns of the venous system of the upper limb seems to be endless.

Get Citation

Keywords

venous system, upper limb, anatomical variation, surgery

About this article
Title

Unusual variability of the superficial venous system of the upper limb and its consequences for deep venous system

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)

Article type

Case report

Pages

254-257

Published online

2020-12-23

Page views

1908

Article views/downloads

707

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2020.0147

Pubmed

33438191

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2022;81(1):254-257.

Keywords

venous system
upper limb
anatomical variation
surgery

Authors

Z. M. Ziętek

References (14)
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  2. Bardeleben K. Die Hauptvene des Armes, vena capitalis brachii. Jenaische Zeitschrift 1880, 586-606 mit Tafeln XXVIII.
  3. Charpy A. Systeme veineux. Veines du membre superieur. Traite d’anatomie humaine. Chapter IV. 1903: 904–924.
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  6. Kaiser CL, Anaya-Ayala JE, Ismail N, et al. Unrecognized basilic vein variation leading to complication during basilic vein transposition arteriovenous fistula creation: case report and implications for access planning. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2010; 39(5): 627–629.
  7. Lee HS, Song YR, Kim JK, et al. Anatomical variants of upper arm veins on preoperative mapping venography for hemodialysis access in Korean adults. J Vasc Access. 2019; 20(3): 270–275.
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  9. Mikuni Y, Chiba S, Tonosaki Y. Topographical anatomy of superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, and arteries at venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa. Anat Sci Int. 2013; 88(1): 46–57.
  10. Radkowski CA, Richards RS, Pietrobon R, et al. An anatomic study of the cephalic vein in the deltopectoral shoulder approach. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006; 442: 139–142.
  11. Sadeghi A, Setayesh Mehr M, Esfandiari E, et al. Variation of the cephalic and basilic veins: A case report. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2017; 9(4): 232–234.
  12. Sandhu NPS, Sidhu DS. Mid-arm approach to basilic and cephalic vein cannulation using ultrasound guidance. Br J Anaesth. 2004; 93(2): 292–294.
  13. Ukoha UU, Oranusi CK, Okafor JI, et al. Patterns of superficial venous arrangement in the cubital fossa of adult Nigerians. Niger J Clin Pract. 2013; 16(1): 104–109.
  14. Vazquez T, Sanduo J. eins of the upper limb. Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anat Variation. Ed: Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Loukas MM. Willey Pub 2016: 826–830.

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