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Original article
Published online: 2020-09-23
Submitted: 2020-09-03
Accepted: 2020-09-13
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Ameliorating effect of selenium nanoparticles on cyclophosphamide induced hippocampal neurotoxicity in male rats: light, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study

H. M. Ibrahim, M. A. E. Zommara, M. E. Elnaggar
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2020.0117
·
Pubmed: 33084015

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2020-09-23
Submitted: 2020-09-03
Accepted: 2020-09-13

Abstract

Background: Cyclophosphamide (CPH) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that can affect the hippocampal neurocytes with a subsequent effect on memory and cognitive functions. Nanomedicine has the potential to overcome the current chemotherapeutic side effects, because of the unique nanoscale size and distinctive bioeffects of nanomaterials. So, the present study aims to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of the biologically synthesized nano-selenium (nano Se) on CPH induced hippocampal neurotoxicity. Materials and methods: Twenty four rats were randomly classified into four groups of 6 rats each: control group, nano Se group (dose of 0.5 mg biological nano Se /kg daily via oral gavage), CPH group (dose of 20 mg CPH/kg daily intraperitoneally), and CPH plus Nano Se group.  After 4 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the hippocampus was excised and processed. Sections were stained with H&E stain and immunohistochemically stained for caspase 3 (apoptosis marker) and GFAB (astrocytic activity marker). Morphometric analysis and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination were also done. Results: Control and nano Se groups revealed no structural changes. By light microscopy, CPH group showed degeneration and necrosis of hippocampal neurocytes, significantly reduced thickness of the neurocyte cell layers, increased expression of GFAB and caspase 3 immunostains and significantly elevated apoptotic index. Moreover, neurocytes damage, mitochondrial cristeolysis, mild dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum (Er), and disrupted neurolemmal sheaths of nerve fibers were also demonstrated by TEM. Nano Se cotreatment in the fourth group reversed all the aforementioned deleterious changes that induced by CPH in the hippocampal neurocytes. Conclusions: Treatment with CPH caused damage to hippocampal neurocytes that can be reversed by biological nano Se co-treatment.

Abstract

Background: Cyclophosphamide (CPH) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that can affect the hippocampal neurocytes with a subsequent effect on memory and cognitive functions. Nanomedicine has the potential to overcome the current chemotherapeutic side effects, because of the unique nanoscale size and distinctive bioeffects of nanomaterials. So, the present study aims to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of the biologically synthesized nano-selenium (nano Se) on CPH induced hippocampal neurotoxicity. Materials and methods: Twenty four rats were randomly classified into four groups of 6 rats each: control group, nano Se group (dose of 0.5 mg biological nano Se /kg daily via oral gavage), CPH group (dose of 20 mg CPH/kg daily intraperitoneally), and CPH plus Nano Se group.  After 4 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the hippocampus was excised and processed. Sections were stained with H&E stain and immunohistochemically stained for caspase 3 (apoptosis marker) and GFAB (astrocytic activity marker). Morphometric analysis and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination were also done. Results: Control and nano Se groups revealed no structural changes. By light microscopy, CPH group showed degeneration and necrosis of hippocampal neurocytes, significantly reduced thickness of the neurocyte cell layers, increased expression of GFAB and caspase 3 immunostains and significantly elevated apoptotic index. Moreover, neurocytes damage, mitochondrial cristeolysis, mild dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum (Er), and disrupted neurolemmal sheaths of nerve fibers were also demonstrated by TEM. Nano Se cotreatment in the fourth group reversed all the aforementioned deleterious changes that induced by CPH in the hippocampal neurocytes. Conclusions: Treatment with CPH caused damage to hippocampal neurocytes that can be reversed by biological nano Se co-treatment.

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Keywords

cyclophosphamide, hippocampus, neurotoxicity, nano selenium

About this article
Title

Ameliorating effect of selenium nanoparticles on cyclophosphamide induced hippocampal neurotoxicity in male rats: light, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2020-09-23

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2020.0117

Pubmed

33084015

Keywords

cyclophosphamide
hippocampus
neurotoxicity
nano selenium

Authors

H. M. Ibrahim
M. A. E. Zommara
M. E. Elnaggar

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