Vol 79, No 2 (2020)
Original article
Published online: 2019-06-27

open access

Page views 3023
Article views/downloads 1507
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Adverse effects of energy drink on rat pancreas and the therapeutic role of each of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Nigella Sativa oil

H. Haroun1, E. Mohamed1, A. E. R. El Shahat2, H. Labib1, M. Atef1
Pubmed: 31257565
Folia Morphol 2020;79(2):272-279.


Background: Energy drinks have been observed to threaten public health leading to many medical problems. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have broad prospects in tissue regeneration. Nigella Sativa (NS) possess great therapeutic properties for the treatment of a wide range of diseases.

Materials and methods: Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: control group and treated group. The treated group was further subdivided into: energy drink subgroup 2a, BMSCs-injected subgroup 2b, NS-injected subgroup 2c. Histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assessment was performed.

Results: Administration of energy drink revealed that it adversely affected the pancreatic cytoarchitecture. BMSCs and NS have been similarly observed to significantly ameliorate the histological, biochemical and immunohistochemical changes induced by energy drink.

Conclusions: The extent of pancreatic regeneration, exerted by each of BMSCs and NS oil, is nearly similar but the effect of BMSCs is more superior; however, NS could be privileged to BMSCs as a line of treatment being easily accessible and of lower cost.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Abdelmeguid NE, Fakhoury R, Kamal SM, et al. Effects of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on biochemical and subcellular changes in pancreatic β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Diabetes. 2010; 2(4): 256–266.
  2. Adjene J, Emojevwe V, Idiapho D. Effects of long-term consumption of energy drinks on the body and brain weights of adult Wistar rats. J Exp Clin Anat. 2014; 13(1): 17.
  3. Akande IS, Banjoko OA. Assessment of biochemical effect of “Power Horse” energy drink on hepatic, renal and histological functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Ann Rev Res Biol. 2011; 1(3): 45–56.
  4. Al-Gayyar MMH, Hassan HM, Alyoussef A, et al. Nigella sativa oil attenuates chronic nephrotoxicity induced by oral sodium nitrite: Effects on tissue fibrosis and apoptosis. Redox Rep. 2016; 21(2): 50–60.
  5. Asfour W, Almadi S, Haffar L. Thymoquinone Suppresses Cellular Proliferation, Inhibits VEGF Production and Obstructs Tumor Progression and Invasion in the Rat Model of DMH-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis. Pharmacology Pharmacy. 2013; 04(01): 7–17.
  6. Ayuob N, ElBeshbeishy R. Impact of an energy drink on the structure of stomach and pancreas of albino rat: can omega-3 provide a protection? PLoS One. 2016; 11(2): e0149191.
  7. Balbaa M, Abdulmalek SA, Khalil S. Oxidative stress and expression of insulin signaling proteins in the brain of diabetic rats: Role of Nigella sativa oil and antidiabetic drugs. PLoS One. 2017; 12(5): e0172429.
  8. Bamosa AO, Kaatabi H, Lebdaa FM, et al. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010; 54(4): 344–354.
  9. Cascella M, Palma G, Barbieri A, et al. Role of Nigella Sativa and its constituent thymoquinone on chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity: evidences from experimental animal studies. Nutrients. 2017; 9(6): 625.
  10. Crişan M, Munteanu C, Roşioru C, et al. Red Bull induces biochemical changes in wistar rat liver. Ann Romanian Society Cell Biol. 2013; 18(2): 118–122.
  11. Díaz A, Treviño S, Guevara J, et al. Energy drink administration in combination with alcohol causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016: 8725354.
  12. El Rabey HA, Al-Seeni MN, Bakhashwain AS. The antidiabetic activity of and propolis on streptozotocin-induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: 5439645.
  13. Emekli-Alturfan E, Yarat A, Tunali-Akbay T, et al. Effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil on gastric tissue in experimental colitis. Adv Enviromental Biology. 2011; 5: 483–490.
  14. Faheem M, Daud M, Umar M, et al. Can energy drink cause acute pancreatitis? Rawal Med J. 2017; 42(4): 590–591.
  15. Famurewa AC, Folawiyo AM, Epete MA, et al. Consumption of caffeinated energy drink induces alterations in lipid profile and hepatic aminotransferases in experimental rats. J Chem Pharmac Res. 2015; 7(12): 363–369.
  16. Fathi SS, Zaminy A. Stem cell therapy for nerve injury. World J Stem Cells. 2017; 9(9): 144–151.
  17. Goyal SN, Prajapati CP, Gore PR, et al. Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development of Thymoquinone: A Multitargeted Molecule of Natural Origin. Front Pharmacol. 2017; 8: 656.
  18. Howard MA, Marczinski CA. Acute effects of a glucose energy drink on behavioral control. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010; 18(6): 553–561.
  19. Jasinski L, Chylinska-Wrzos P, Lis-Sochocka M, et al. A comparison of caspase 3 expression in the endocrine and exocrine parts of the pancreas after cladribine application according to the "leukemic" schema. Curr Iss Pharmacy Med Scien. 2017; 30(1): 9–15.
  20. Jung KH, Song SU, Yi T, et al. Human bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells inhibit inflammation and reduce acute pancreatitis in rats. Gastroenterology. 2011; 140(3): 998–1008.
  21. Kanter M, Akpolat M, Aktas C. Protective effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a light and electron microscopic study. J Mol Histol. 2009; 40(5-6): 379–385.
  22. Karunakaran U, Park KG. A systematic review of oxidative stress and safety of antioxidants in diabetes: focus on islets and their defense. Diabetes Metab J. 2013; 37(2): 106–112.
  23. Kawakubo K, Ohnishi S, Fujita H, et al. Effect of fetal membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in rats with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2016; 45(5): 707–713.
  24. Kern S, Eichler H, Stoeve J, et al. Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue. Stem Cells. 2006; 24(5): 1294–1301.
  25. Khayyat L, Essawy A, Al Ra, et al. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in wister albino rats. J Environ Biol. 2014; 35(5): 883–891.
  26. Khayyat L, Essawy A, Sorour J, et al. Impact of some energy drinks on the structure and function of the kidney in wistar albino rats. Life Scie J. 2014; 11(10): 1131–1138.
  27. Li TS, Shi H, Wang L, et al. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on satellite cell proliferation and apoptosis in immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22: 4651–4660.
  28. Lin HY, Xu L, Xie SS, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells suppress lung inflammation and airway remodeling in chronic asthma rat model via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(8): 8958–8967.
  29. Lv CL, Wang J, Xie T, et al. Bone marrow transplantation reverses new-onset immunoinflammatory diabetes in a mouse model. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(8): 5327–5336.
  30. Milanesi A, Lee JW, Li Z, et al. Beta cell regeneration mediated by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8): e42177.
  31. Mohamed S, Ali EAI, Hosny S. The antidiabetic effect of mesenchymal stem cells vs. Nigella Sativa oil on streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. J Cell Sci Ther. 2015; 06(05).
  32. Mubarak R. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on rats submandibular salivary glands (Light and Electron microscopic study). J Am Scien. 2012; 8(1): 366–372.
  33. Norouzi F, Abareshi A, Asgharzadeh F, et al. The effect of on inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis in male rats. Res Pharm Sci. 2017; 12(1): 74–81.
  34. Olaleru F, Odeigah P. Effects of energy drink on sperm morphology, haematological parametres and behaviour of adult male mice. Ann Res Rev Biol. 2015; 6(5): 288–296.
  35. Pandiri AR. Overview of exocrine pancreatic pathobiology. Toxicol Pathol. 2014; 42(1): 207–216.
  36. Parekkadan B, van Poll D, Megeed Z, et al. Immunomodulation of activated hepatic stellate cells by mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007; 363(2): 247–252.
  37. Pouraboli I, Nazari S, Sabet N, et al. Antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antilipid peroxidative activities of Dracocephalum polychaetum shoot extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: In vivo and in vitro studies. Pharm Biol. 2016; 54(2): 272–278.
  38. Ramos-Vara JA, Kiupel M, Baszler T, et al. American association of veterinary laboratory diagnosticians subcommittee on standardization of immunohistochemistry: Suggested guidelines for immunohistochemical techniques in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008; 20(4): 393–413.
  39. Rath M. Energy drinks: what is all the hype? The dangers of energy drink consumption. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2012; 24(2): 70–76.
  40. Rchid H, Chevassus H, Nmila R, et al. Nigella sativa seed extracts enhance glucose-induced insulin release from rat-isolated Langerhans islets. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2004; 18(5): 525–529.
  41. Reissig CJ, Strain EC, Griffiths RR. Caffeinated energy drinks--a growing problem. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009; 99(1-3): 1–10.
  42. Sabry MM, Elkalawy SAE, Abo-Elnour RKD, et al. Histolgical and immunohistochemical study on the effect of stem cell therapy on bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis in albino rat. Int J Stem Cells. 2014; 7(1): 33–42.
  43. Sadowska J. Evaluation of the effect of consuming an energy drink on the concentration of glucose and triacylglycerols and on fatty tissue deposition. A model study. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 2012; 11(3): 311–318.
  44. Shahroudi MJ, Mehri S, Hosseinzadeh H. Anti-Aging effect of nigella sativa fixed oil on D-galactose-induced aging in mice. J Pharmacopuncture. 2017; 20(1): 29–35.
  45. Shmelev A, Abdo A, Sachdev S, et al. Energetic etiologies of acute pancreatitis: a report of five cases. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2015; 6(4): 243–248.
  46. Sitanggang EJ, Antarianto RD, Jusman SW, et al. Bone marrow stem cells anti-liver fibrosis potency: inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activity and extracellular matrix deposition. Int J Stem Cells. 2017; 10(1): 69–75.
  47. Strobel O, Rosow DE, Rakhlin EY, et al. Pancreatic duct glands are distinct ductal compartments that react to chronic injury and mediate Shh-induced metaplasia. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138(3): 1166–1177.
  48. Suguna P, Geetha A, Aruna R, et al. Effect of thymoquinone on ethanol and high fat diet induced chronic pancreatitis: a dose response study in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2013; 51(4): 292–302.
  49. Yi T, Cho SG, Yi Z, et al. Thymoquinone inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth through suppressing AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008; 7(7): 1789–1796.
  50. Yoruk O, Tatar A, Keles ON, et al. The value of Nigella Sativa in the treatment of experimentally induced rhinosinusitis. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2017; 37(1): 32–37.
  51. Zhang S, Shi B. Erythropoietin modification enhances the protection of mesenchymal stem cells on diabetic rat-derived schwann cells: implications for diabetic neuropathy. Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017: 6352858.
  52. Zhao H, He Z, Huang D, et al. Infusion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells attenuates experimental severe acute pancreatitis in rats. Stem Cells Int. 2016; 2016: 7174319.
  53. Zhou CH, Li ML, Qin AL, et al. Reduction of fibrosis in dibutyltin dichloride-induced chronic pancreatitis using rat umbilical mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly. Pancreas. 2013; 42(8): 1291–1302.
  54. Zong C, Zhang H, Yang X, et al. The distinct roles of mesenchymal stem cells in the initial and progressive stage of hepatocarcinoma. Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(3): 345.