open access

Vol 78, No 4 (2019)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-02-28
Submitted: 2018-12-06
Accepted: 2019-01-29
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Innervation of the pineal gland in the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) by nerve fibres immunoreactive to substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide

M. Bulc, B. Lewczuk
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2019.0024
·
Pubmed: 30835341
·
Folia Morphol 2019;78(4):695-702.

open access

Vol 78, No 4 (2019)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-02-28
Submitted: 2018-12-06
Accepted: 2019-01-29

Abstract

Background: The study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the nerve fibres supplying the pineal gland in the Arctic fox. Materials and methods: The expression and distribution pattern of the studied substances were examined by double-labelling immunofluorescence technique. Results: The SP-positive fibres enter into the pineal gland through the capsule as the nervi conarii. The fibres formed thick bundles in the capsule and connective tissue septa, from where they penetrated into the pineal parenchyma. Inside the parenchyma, the nerve fibres created basket-like structures surrounding clusters of pinealocytes. The density of intrapineal SP positive fibres was slightly higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. Double immunostaining with antibodies against SP and CGRP revealed that the vast majority of SP positive fibres were also CGRP positive. The fibres showing a positive reaction to SP and negative to CGRP were scattered within the whole gland. The fibres immunopositive to CGRP and immunonegative to SP were not observed. In the habenular and posterior commissural areas adjoining to the pineal gland the immunoreactive nerve fibres were not found. Moreover, no immunopositive cell bodies were observed in both the pineal gland and the commissural areas. Conclusions: These results reveal that SP and CGRP are involved in the innervation of pineal gland in carnivores. In turn we suggest that these peptides can regulate/modulate melatonin secretion.

Abstract

Background: The study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the nerve fibres supplying the pineal gland in the Arctic fox. Materials and methods: The expression and distribution pattern of the studied substances were examined by double-labelling immunofluorescence technique. Results: The SP-positive fibres enter into the pineal gland through the capsule as the nervi conarii. The fibres formed thick bundles in the capsule and connective tissue septa, from where they penetrated into the pineal parenchyma. Inside the parenchyma, the nerve fibres created basket-like structures surrounding clusters of pinealocytes. The density of intrapineal SP positive fibres was slightly higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. Double immunostaining with antibodies against SP and CGRP revealed that the vast majority of SP positive fibres were also CGRP positive. The fibres showing a positive reaction to SP and negative to CGRP were scattered within the whole gland. The fibres immunopositive to CGRP and immunonegative to SP were not observed. In the habenular and posterior commissural areas adjoining to the pineal gland the immunoreactive nerve fibres were not found. Moreover, no immunopositive cell bodies were observed in both the pineal gland and the commissural areas. Conclusions: These results reveal that SP and CGRP are involved in the innervation of pineal gland in carnivores. In turn we suggest that these peptides can regulate/modulate melatonin secretion.

Get Citation

Keywords

pineal gland, nerve fibres, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, immunohistochemistry, Arctic fox

About this article
Title

Innervation of the pineal gland in the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) by nerve fibres immunoreactive to substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 78, No 4 (2019)

Pages

695-702

Published online

2019-02-28

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2019.0024

Pubmed

30835341

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2019;78(4):695-702.

Keywords

pineal gland
nerve fibres
substance P
calcitonin gene-related peptide
immunohistochemistry
Arctic fox

Authors

M. Bulc
B. Lewczuk

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