open access

Vol 78, No 2 (2019)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-08-24
Submitted: 2018-06-19
Accepted: 2018-08-08
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Observations of foetal heart veins draining directly into the left and right atria

J.H. Kim, O.H. Chai, C.H. Song, Z.W. Jin, G. Murakami, H. Abe
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0077
·
Pubmed: 30155874
·
Folia Morphol 2019;78(2):283-289.

open access

Vol 78, No 2 (2019)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-08-24
Submitted: 2018-06-19
Accepted: 2018-08-08

Abstract

Evaluation of semiserial sections of 14 normal hearts from human foetuses of gestational age 25–33 weeks showed that all of these hearts contained thin veins draining directly into the atria (maximum, 10 veins per heart). Of the 75 veins in these 14 hearts, 55 emptied into the right atrium and 20 into the left atrium. These veins were not accompanied by nerves, in contrast to tributaries of the great cardiac vein, and were negative for both smooth muscle actin (SMA) and CD34. However, the epithelium and venous wall of the anterior cardiac vein, the thickest of the direct draining veins, were strongly positive for SMA and CD34, respectively. In general, developing fibres in the vascular wall were positive for CD34, while the endothelium of the arteries and veins was strongly positive for the present DAKO antibody of SMA. The small cardiac vein, a thin but permanent tributary of the terminal portion of the great cardiac vein, was also positive for SMA and CD34. A few S100 protein-positive nerves were observed along both the anterior and small cardiac veins, but no nerves accompanied the direct dra- inage veins. These findings suggested that the latter did not develop from the early epicardiac vascular plexus but from a gulfing of the intratrabecular space or sinus of the atria. However, the immunoreactivity of the anterior cardiac vein suggests that it originated from the vascular plexus, similar to tributaries of the great cardiac vein. 

Abstract

Evaluation of semiserial sections of 14 normal hearts from human foetuses of gestational age 25–33 weeks showed that all of these hearts contained thin veins draining directly into the atria (maximum, 10 veins per heart). Of the 75 veins in these 14 hearts, 55 emptied into the right atrium and 20 into the left atrium. These veins were not accompanied by nerves, in contrast to tributaries of the great cardiac vein, and were negative for both smooth muscle actin (SMA) and CD34. However, the epithelium and venous wall of the anterior cardiac vein, the thickest of the direct draining veins, were strongly positive for SMA and CD34, respectively. In general, developing fibres in the vascular wall were positive for CD34, while the endothelium of the arteries and veins was strongly positive for the present DAKO antibody of SMA. The small cardiac vein, a thin but permanent tributary of the terminal portion of the great cardiac vein, was also positive for SMA and CD34. A few S100 protein-positive nerves were observed along both the anterior and small cardiac veins, but no nerves accompanied the direct dra- inage veins. These findings suggested that the latter did not develop from the early epicardiac vascular plexus but from a gulfing of the intratrabecular space or sinus of the atria. However, the immunoreactivity of the anterior cardiac vein suggests that it originated from the vascular plexus, similar to tributaries of the great cardiac vein. 

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Keywords

great cardiac vein; anterior cardiac vein; venae cordis minimae; smooth muscle actin; CD34; human foetuses

About this article
Title

Observations of foetal heart veins draining directly into the left and right atria

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 78, No 2 (2019)

Pages

283-289

Published online

2018-08-24

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2018.0077

Pubmed

30155874

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2019;78(2):283-289.

Keywords

great cardiac vein
anterior cardiac vein
venae cordis minimae
smooth muscle actin
CD34
human foetuses

Authors

J.H. Kim
O.H. Chai
C.H. Song
Z.W. Jin
G. Murakami
H. Abe

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