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Original article
Submitted: 2024-01-26
Accepted: 2024-02-29
Published online: 2024-03-21
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Quantitative anatomy of the extensor digiti minimi muscle in the growing human fetus

Mateusz Badura1, Anna Badura2, Magdalena Grzonkowska1, Mariusz Baumgart1, Monika Paruszewska-Achtel1, Michał Szpinda1
·
Pubmed: 38512010
Affiliations
  1. Department of Normal Anatomy, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland
  2. Department of Biopharmacy, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2024-01-26
Accepted: 2024-02-29
Published online: 2024-03-21

Abstract

Introduction Age-specific reference intervals for the extensor digiti minimi muscle (EDMM) in the human fetus may be relevant in the detailed evaluation of the musculoskeletal systems with potential relevant aspects for surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to examine the age-specific reference intervals and growth dynamics of the EDMM in relation to its length, width, projection surface area and volume. Material and methods The examined material included 70 human formalin-fixed fetuses of both sexes (37♀, 33♂) aged from 17 to 29 weeks. With the use of anatomical dissection every EDMM was visualized, recorded in a form of JPG formats and analyzed by the digital image analysis system and statistical methods. Results No variability of the EDMM was found. All the morphometric parameters of the EDMM revealed neither sex nor laterality differences. With fetal age most linear parameters of the EDMM concerning its examined lengths and widths increased in accordance with natural logarithmic functions. The only two exceptions to this referred to the belly width of EDMM measured at its mid-length and the tendon width of EDMM measured proximal to the extensor retinaculum of wrist, which both followed square root functions. The projection surface areas of the EDMM followed natural logarithmic functions, while the volumetric growth of the EDMM was proportionate to fetal age. Conclusions The variability of the EDMM in the human fetus is minimal. The morphometric data of the EDMM represents age-specific reference intervals of clinical significance. Morphometric parameters of the EDMM reveal neither sex nor laterality differences. The EDMM displays three different growth dynamics: from gradual growth deceleration according to both natural logarithmic functions (total length of the muscle and its tendons, belly length, tendon lengths, belly width at its origin, tendon width at its insertion, and projection surface areas) and square root functions (belly width at its mid-length and tendon width in the pre-retinacular segment) to a proportionate growth (total volume).

Abstract

Introduction Age-specific reference intervals for the extensor digiti minimi muscle (EDMM) in the human fetus may be relevant in the detailed evaluation of the musculoskeletal systems with potential relevant aspects for surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to examine the age-specific reference intervals and growth dynamics of the EDMM in relation to its length, width, projection surface area and volume. Material and methods The examined material included 70 human formalin-fixed fetuses of both sexes (37♀, 33♂) aged from 17 to 29 weeks. With the use of anatomical dissection every EDMM was visualized, recorded in a form of JPG formats and analyzed by the digital image analysis system and statistical methods. Results No variability of the EDMM was found. All the morphometric parameters of the EDMM revealed neither sex nor laterality differences. With fetal age most linear parameters of the EDMM concerning its examined lengths and widths increased in accordance with natural logarithmic functions. The only two exceptions to this referred to the belly width of EDMM measured at its mid-length and the tendon width of EDMM measured proximal to the extensor retinaculum of wrist, which both followed square root functions. The projection surface areas of the EDMM followed natural logarithmic functions, while the volumetric growth of the EDMM was proportionate to fetal age. Conclusions The variability of the EDMM in the human fetus is minimal. The morphometric data of the EDMM represents age-specific reference intervals of clinical significance. Morphometric parameters of the EDMM reveal neither sex nor laterality differences. The EDMM displays three different growth dynamics: from gradual growth deceleration according to both natural logarithmic functions (total length of the muscle and its tendons, belly length, tendon lengths, belly width at its origin, tendon width at its insertion, and projection surface areas) and square root functions (belly width at its mid-length and tendon width in the pre-retinacular segment) to a proportionate growth (total volume).

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Keywords

extensor digiti minimi muscle; growth dynamics; fetal development; human fetus

About this article
Title

Quantitative anatomy of the extensor digiti minimi muscle in the growing human fetus

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2024-03-21

Page views

58

Article views/downloads

38

DOI

10.5603/fm.99127

Pubmed

38512010

Keywords

extensor digiti minimi muscle
growth dynamics
fetal development
human fetus

Authors

Mateusz Badura
Anna Badura
Magdalena Grzonkowska
Mariusz Baumgart
Monika Paruszewska-Achtel
Michał Szpinda

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