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Submitted: 2023-11-29
Accepted: 2024-01-10
Published online: 2024-02-01
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Comparative study of the peroneus tertius muscle in pigs based on the origin, course, insertion and innervation

Yutaro Natsuyama12, Ting Yang2, Rujia Li2, Kazuyuki Shimada2, Shunichi Uetake2, Ke Ren3, Yasuko Kamikawa4, Konosuke Tokita5, Ryuhei Kojima5, Masahiro Itoh1, Shuang-Qin Yi2
·
Pubmed: 38299444
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
  2. Department of Frontier Health Sciences, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
  3. Faculty of Physical Education, Qu Jing Normal University, Yun Nan, China
  4. Department of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science Field of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan
  5. Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2023-11-29
Accepted: 2024-01-10
Published online: 2024-02-01

Abstract

Background: That the peroneus tertius muscle (PT) is a separate entity has been debated. PT has been reported to be part of the extensor digitorum longus muscle, part of the extensor digitorum brevis, or a separate muscle. While pigs have a PT as well as primates, there are no reports of its association with the extensor digitorum longus muscle or extensor digitorum brevis.

Materials and methods: In this study, we used gross dissection and Sihler’s staining to determine the origin, course, insertion, and innervation of the pig PT.

Results: The PT and extensor digitorum longus muscles jointly originated from the femur and ran between the tibialis cranialis and peroneus longus muscles. The PT was inserted at the retinaculum of the metatarsal extensors, tarsal bone, and second metatarsal bone. The branches of the common fibular nerve to the extensor digitorum longus muscle were distributed to the PT.

Conclusions: The innervations suggest that the PT and extensor digitorum longus muscles of the pig were derived from the same muscle mass during development but were named separately due to differences in their morphology. Furthermore, morphological features suggest that pig PT and human PT are probably different muscles.

Abstract

Background: That the peroneus tertius muscle (PT) is a separate entity has been debated. PT has been reported to be part of the extensor digitorum longus muscle, part of the extensor digitorum brevis, or a separate muscle. While pigs have a PT as well as primates, there are no reports of its association with the extensor digitorum longus muscle or extensor digitorum brevis.

Materials and methods: In this study, we used gross dissection and Sihler’s staining to determine the origin, course, insertion, and innervation of the pig PT.

Results: The PT and extensor digitorum longus muscles jointly originated from the femur and ran between the tibialis cranialis and peroneus longus muscles. The PT was inserted at the retinaculum of the metatarsal extensors, tarsal bone, and second metatarsal bone. The branches of the common fibular nerve to the extensor digitorum longus muscle were distributed to the PT.

Conclusions: The innervations suggest that the PT and extensor digitorum longus muscles of the pig were derived from the same muscle mass during development but were named separately due to differences in their morphology. Furthermore, morphological features suggest that pig PT and human PT are probably different muscles.

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Keywords

common fibularis nerve, hindlimb, fibularis tertius, Shiler’s stain, comparative anatomy

About this article
Title

Comparative study of the peroneus tertius muscle in pigs based on the origin, course, insertion and innervation

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2024-02-01

Page views

148

Article views/downloads

152

DOI

10.5603/fm.98348

Pubmed

38299444

Keywords

common fibularis nerve
hindlimb
fibularis tertius
Shiler’s stain
comparative anatomy

Authors

Yutaro Natsuyama
Ting Yang
Rujia Li
Kazuyuki Shimada
Shunichi Uetake
Ke Ren
Yasuko Kamikawa
Konosuke Tokita
Ryuhei Kojima
Masahiro Itoh
Shuang-Qin Yi

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