open access

Ahead of Print
Case report
Submitted: 2023-10-29
Accepted: 2023-12-03
Published online: 2024-04-03
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A three-headed psoas major muscle: a case report

Marta Pośnik1, Nicol Zielinska1, Łukasz Olewnik1, Mariola Głowacka2, Piotr Łabętowicz3
·
Pubmed: 38567938
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomical Dissection and Donation, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland
  2. Nursing Department, Masovian Academy in Płock, Poland
  3. Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland

open access

Ahead of Print
CASE REPORTS
Submitted: 2023-10-29
Accepted: 2023-12-03
Published online: 2024-04-03

Abstract

Background: Multiple anatomical variations, from anomalous courses to additional structures, have been reported in muscles from different compartments of the human body. We report an extremely rare case of a psoas major muscle presenting as a three-headed structure with variable morphology.

Materials and methods: During a routine dissection of the posterior abdominal wall of a 82-year-old male cadaver, an anomalous PM muscle with supernumerary head was identified, photographed and subjected to further measurement.

Results: Although the anatomy of the dissected posterior abdominal wall structures was typical, a three-headed psoas major muscle composed of superficial, intermediate and deep heads was identified.

Conclusions: It is important to be aware of morphological variability of muscles, especially those considered to be constant, since an anomalous structure might interfere not only with their functions, but also lead to further clinical consequences.

Abstract

Background: Multiple anatomical variations, from anomalous courses to additional structures, have been reported in muscles from different compartments of the human body. We report an extremely rare case of a psoas major muscle presenting as a three-headed structure with variable morphology.

Materials and methods: During a routine dissection of the posterior abdominal wall of a 82-year-old male cadaver, an anomalous PM muscle with supernumerary head was identified, photographed and subjected to further measurement.

Results: Although the anatomy of the dissected posterior abdominal wall structures was typical, a three-headed psoas major muscle composed of superficial, intermediate and deep heads was identified.

Conclusions: It is important to be aware of morphological variability of muscles, especially those considered to be constant, since an anomalous structure might interfere not only with their functions, but also lead to further clinical consequences.

Get Citation

Keywords

Psoas major muscle, iliopsoas muscle complex, anatomical variations, muscle disproportions

About this article
Title

A three-headed psoas major muscle: a case report

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Case report

Published online

2024-04-03

Page views

49

Article views/downloads

31

DOI

10.5603/fm.98028

Pubmed

38567938

Keywords

Psoas major muscle
iliopsoas muscle complex
anatomical variations
muscle disproportions

Authors

Marta Pośnik
Nicol Zielinska
Łukasz Olewnik
Mariola Głowacka
Piotr Łabętowicz

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