open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
Original article
Submitted: 2023-09-15
Accepted: 2023-10-18
Published online: 2023-10-30
Get Citation

Topography of the infraorbital foramen in human skulls originating from different time periods

A. Gawlikowska-Sroka1, Ł. Stocki2, J. Szczurowski3, W. Nowaczewska4
·
Pubmed: 37957943
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):875-884.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
  2. Orion Dental Wawrzyniak and Stocki Dental Clinic, Szczecin, Poland
  3. Department of Anthropology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
  4. Department of Human Biology, University of Wroclaw, Poland

open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2023-09-15
Accepted: 2023-10-18
Published online: 2023-10-30

Abstract

Background: The infraorbital foramen (IOF) is present on the maxilla under the
infraorbital margin. Its identification is essential in various surgical procedures. The
main aim of this study was the morphometric assessment of the position of the right
and left infraorbital foramina in relation to specific structural elements of the facial
skeleton, their width and direction, and also the determination of the location of
these foramina above maxillary teeth in examined male skulls (belonging to European
populations) dated to the beginning of the 20th century and the medieval and
post-medieval period. This aim concerned also the assessment of the symmetry of
the examined foramina (their location and size). An additional goal was to determine
differences between the cranial samples concerning the analysed traits.
Materials and methods: The six metric and two non-metric traits concerning the
IOF were collected from the male cranial samples including modern skulls (n = 87),
the medieval and post-medieval skulls (from 13th centuries and 15–17th centuries,
respectively; n = 47) obtained from archaeological excavations in Wroclaw, and the
sample of the medieval skulls (11–13th centuries, n = 100) from Sypniewo. The sex
and age of the specimens were determined using the standard methodology. The
appropriate statistical analysis was performed.
Results: Significant differences were established for three traits (taken from the left
and right side) in the case of modern skulls (diameter of IOF, its distance to the midline,
and zygomaticomaxillary suture) and one in the case of medieval skulls from Sypniewo
(distance to the midline). In all of the cranial samples IOF most frequently occurred above
the first upper molar. The greater diameter of IOF and its shorter distance to the alveolar
crest and nasal notch were observed in non-modern skulls compared to modern skulls.
Conclusions: The results of this study provide new additional data on the topography of
IOF and its asymmetry, confirm the presence of both geographical and chronological differences
between populations, and can be used in dental practice, and forensic odontology
in the analysis of archaeological bone materials.

Abstract

Background: The infraorbital foramen (IOF) is present on the maxilla under the
infraorbital margin. Its identification is essential in various surgical procedures. The
main aim of this study was the morphometric assessment of the position of the right
and left infraorbital foramina in relation to specific structural elements of the facial
skeleton, their width and direction, and also the determination of the location of
these foramina above maxillary teeth in examined male skulls (belonging to European
populations) dated to the beginning of the 20th century and the medieval and
post-medieval period. This aim concerned also the assessment of the symmetry of
the examined foramina (their location and size). An additional goal was to determine
differences between the cranial samples concerning the analysed traits.
Materials and methods: The six metric and two non-metric traits concerning the
IOF were collected from the male cranial samples including modern skulls (n = 87),
the medieval and post-medieval skulls (from 13th centuries and 15–17th centuries,
respectively; n = 47) obtained from archaeological excavations in Wroclaw, and the
sample of the medieval skulls (11–13th centuries, n = 100) from Sypniewo. The sex
and age of the specimens were determined using the standard methodology. The
appropriate statistical analysis was performed.
Results: Significant differences were established for three traits (taken from the left
and right side) in the case of modern skulls (diameter of IOF, its distance to the midline,
and zygomaticomaxillary suture) and one in the case of medieval skulls from Sypniewo
(distance to the midline). In all of the cranial samples IOF most frequently occurred above
the first upper molar. The greater diameter of IOF and its shorter distance to the alveolar
crest and nasal notch were observed in non-modern skulls compared to modern skulls.
Conclusions: The results of this study provide new additional data on the topography of
IOF and its asymmetry, confirm the presence of both geographical and chronological differences
between populations, and can be used in dental practice, and forensic odontology
in the analysis of archaeological bone materials.

Get Citation

Keywords

infraorbital foramen, palaeoanthropology, anatomy, asymmetry, maxillary nerve, trigeminal nerve, infraorbital nerve, infraorbital canal, forensic medicine

About this article
Title

Topography of the infraorbital foramen in human skulls originating from different time periods

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)

Article type

Original article

Pages

875-884

Published online

2023-10-30

Page views

674

Article views/downloads

352

DOI

10.5603/fm.97440

Pubmed

37957943

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):875-884.

Keywords

infraorbital foramen
palaeoanthropology
anatomy
asymmetry
maxillary nerve
trigeminal nerve
infraorbital nerve
infraorbital canal
forensic medicine

Authors

A. Gawlikowska-Sroka
Ł. Stocki
J. Szczurowski
W. Nowaczewska

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