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Original article
Submitted: 2023-08-16
Accepted: 2023-10-23
Published online: 2023-11-08
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The complete anatomy of the mandibular lingula: a meta-analysis with clinical implications

Kinga Glądys1, Patryk Ostrowski12, Michał Bonczar12, Maria Kwiecińska1, Jakub Gliwa1, Ameen Nasser1, Kamil Możdżeń1, Mateusz Trzeciak1, Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga3, Agata Musiał1, Marcin Lipski1, Jerzy Walocha12, Mateusz Koziej12
·
Pubmed: 37957933
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
  2. Youthoria, Youth Research Organization, Krakow, Poland
  3. Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2023-08-16
Accepted: 2023-10-23
Published online: 2023-11-08

Abstract

Background: The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the anatomical variations of the mandibular lingula (ML) and its relationship to surrounding anatomical structures. Understanding such variations is crucial to help determine the site and depth of a successful inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) anesthetic block as well as a safe area for oral and maxillofacial invasive procedures in order to minimize the risk of neurological or hematological damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. Materials and methods: A systematic search was conducted in which all studies were searched on the anatomy of ML. Major medical databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library were searched. Results: All of the results were based on a total of 4694 subjects. The overall height of the ML was found to be 8.17 mm (SE =0.22). The Triangular Type of the ML was found to be the most common one. The pooled prevalence of this variation was found to be 29.33% (LCI = 23.57% ; HCI = 35.24%). The pooled prevalence of the Nodular Type was set to be 27.99% (LCI = 22.64% ; HCI = 33.67%). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis provides clinically relevant information regarding the shape, location, and height variations of the ML. Understanding such variations of the ML is crucial when performing malocclusion corrections procedures that require the ML as a landmark, namely sagittal split ramus osteotomy, and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy. Furthermore, effective anesthetic blocks during oral and maxillofacial procedures can be accomplished with a higher success rate if the correct site of injection is identified. The possible locations of the ML should be considered in order to determine the location of the mandibular foramen and, therefore, inferior alveolar bundle in order to prevent motor, sensory, or perfusion pathology during maxillofacial and oral procedures of the lower jaw. 

Abstract

Background: The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the anatomical variations of the mandibular lingula (ML) and its relationship to surrounding anatomical structures. Understanding such variations is crucial to help determine the site and depth of a successful inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) anesthetic block as well as a safe area for oral and maxillofacial invasive procedures in order to minimize the risk of neurological or hematological damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. Materials and methods: A systematic search was conducted in which all studies were searched on the anatomy of ML. Major medical databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library were searched. Results: All of the results were based on a total of 4694 subjects. The overall height of the ML was found to be 8.17 mm (SE =0.22). The Triangular Type of the ML was found to be the most common one. The pooled prevalence of this variation was found to be 29.33% (LCI = 23.57% ; HCI = 35.24%). The pooled prevalence of the Nodular Type was set to be 27.99% (LCI = 22.64% ; HCI = 33.67%). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis provides clinically relevant information regarding the shape, location, and height variations of the ML. Understanding such variations of the ML is crucial when performing malocclusion corrections procedures that require the ML as a landmark, namely sagittal split ramus osteotomy, and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy. Furthermore, effective anesthetic blocks during oral and maxillofacial procedures can be accomplished with a higher success rate if the correct site of injection is identified. The possible locations of the ML should be considered in order to determine the location of the mandibular foramen and, therefore, inferior alveolar bundle in order to prevent motor, sensory, or perfusion pathology during maxillofacial and oral procedures of the lower jaw. 

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Keywords

mandibular lingula, mandibula, inferior alveolar nerve, anatomy, surgery

About this article
Title

The complete anatomy of the mandibular lingula: a meta-analysis with clinical implications

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2023-11-08

Page views

228

Article views/downloads

192

DOI

10.5603/fm.96992

Pubmed

37957933

Keywords

mandibular lingula
mandibula
inferior alveolar nerve
anatomy
surgery

Authors

Kinga Glądys
Patryk Ostrowski
Michał Bonczar
Maria Kwiecińska
Jakub Gliwa
Ameen Nasser
Kamil Możdżeń
Mateusz Trzeciak
Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga
Agata Musiał
Marcin Lipski
Jerzy Walocha
Mateusz Koziej

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