open access

Ahead of Print
Original article
Submitted: 2023-06-21
Accepted: 2023-08-22
Published online: 2023-09-07
Get Citation

Histological analysis of forearm superficial veins structure

Michał Jerzy Kulus1, Wojciech Golema2, Tomasz Jurek2, Ryszard Jasiński34
·
Pubmed: 37691511
Affiliations
  1. Department of Ultrastructural Research, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
  2. Department of Forensic Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
  3. Department of Anatomy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
  4. Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Wroclaw University of Health and Sport Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2023-06-21
Accepted: 2023-08-22
Published online: 2023-09-07

Abstract

Background: The connection between the basilic and cephalic veins of the forearm shows considerable interindividual variation. Depending on its form, the most common types of venous connections are M-, N- or Y-shaped. This study aims to compare the metric traits of the basilic and cephalic veins and the relative content of smooth muscle/collagen fibers/elastic fibers in their walls and to determine the differences between the forearm venous systems.

Materials and methods: The study was performed on 42 veins collected from 26 deceased individuals between the ages of 19 and 50 years. Vein sections were fixed, embedded in paraffin blocks and used to prepare histological slides, stained according to pentachrome Movat's method. Venous metrics were assessed and the percentage of muscle, elastic and collagen fibers was determined using the Trainable Weka segmentation. Statistical analysis compared the M-type vein with the Y- and N-types, which were combined into one category.

Results and Conclusions: Analysis showed a greater tunica media thickness in the M-type vein, with a greater lumen circumference in the Y/N types. Correlation analysis showed a correlation of vein metrics with elastic fibre content and a weak inverse correlation with the tunica media thickness. It can be hypothesized that the increased performance of N- and Y-types may be related to elastic fibers content.

Abstract

Background: The connection between the basilic and cephalic veins of the forearm shows considerable interindividual variation. Depending on its form, the most common types of venous connections are M-, N- or Y-shaped. This study aims to compare the metric traits of the basilic and cephalic veins and the relative content of smooth muscle/collagen fibers/elastic fibers in their walls and to determine the differences between the forearm venous systems.

Materials and methods: The study was performed on 42 veins collected from 26 deceased individuals between the ages of 19 and 50 years. Vein sections were fixed, embedded in paraffin blocks and used to prepare histological slides, stained according to pentachrome Movat's method. Venous metrics were assessed and the percentage of muscle, elastic and collagen fibers was determined using the Trainable Weka segmentation. Statistical analysis compared the M-type vein with the Y- and N-types, which were combined into one category.

Results and Conclusions: Analysis showed a greater tunica media thickness in the M-type vein, with a greater lumen circumference in the Y/N types. Correlation analysis showed a correlation of vein metrics with elastic fibre content and a weak inverse correlation with the tunica media thickness. It can be hypothesized that the increased performance of N- and Y-types may be related to elastic fibers content.

Get Citation

Keywords

superficial veins, histology, segmentation, microanatomy

About this article
Title

Histological analysis of forearm superficial veins structure

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2023-09-07

Page views

189

Article views/downloads

170

DOI

10.5603/fm.96131

Pubmed

37691511

Keywords

superficial veins
histology
segmentation
microanatomy

Authors

Michał Jerzy Kulus
Wojciech Golema
Tomasz Jurek
Ryszard Jasiński

References (31)
  1. Adadyński L, Cajzner S, Chmura A, et al. Dostęp naczyniowy do dializ z użyciem przemieszczonej podskórnie na ramieniu żyły odłokciowej. Pol Przegl Chir. 1992; 64: 537–541.
  2. Adanır SS, Orhan M. A thick anastomotic vein between cephalic and lateral radial veins: clinical significance of an unusual variation. Cureus. 2021; 13(7): e16629.
  3. Ambroziak M. Physical effort and the cardiovascular system, physiological and genetic principles.Impact on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Postępy Nauk Medycznych. 2008.
  4. Arganda-Carreras I, Kaynig V, Rueden C, et al. Trainable Weka Segmentation: a machine learning tool for microscopy pixel classification. Bioinformatics. 2017; 33(15): 2424–2426.
  5. Battistini N, Virgili F, Bedogni G. Relative expansion of extracellular water in elite male athletes compared to recreational sportsmen. Ann Hum Biol. 1994; 21(6): 609–612.
  6. Bekel A, Bekalu A, Moges A, et al. Anatomical variations of superficial veins pattern in Cubital fossa among north west Ethiopians. Anat J Africa. 2018; 7(2): 1238–1243.
  7. Brito Ad, de Oliveira CV, Brasileiro-Santos Md, et al. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly. Clin Interv Aging. 2014; 9: 2151–2158.
  8. D'Ascenzi F, Pelliccia A, Natali BM, et al. Training-induced dynamic changes in left atrial reservoir, conduit, and active volumes in professional soccer players. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015; 115(8): 1715–1723.
  9. Gupta P, Mandal B. Tissue‐engineered vascular grafts: emerging trends and technologies. Adv Funct Mater. 2021; 31(33).
  10. Hewitson TD, Wigg B, Becker GJ. Tissue preparation for histochemistry: fixation, embedding, and antigen retrieval for light microscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 611: 3–18.
  11. Jasiński R. Morfofunkcjonalne czynniki różnicujące obraz zespoleń powierzchownych żył kończyny górnej u człowieka. In: Studia i Monografie, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu. AWF Wrocław, Wrocław 2004.
  12. Jasiński R. Znaczenie czynności mięśni w odpływie żylnym z kończyny górnej. In: Studia i Monografie, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu. AWF we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 2018.
  13. Jasiński R, Dąbrowska G, Sroka M. Współzależność między cechami morfologicznymi a zapadalnością na chorobę żylakową kończyn dolnych. Fizjoterapia. 2001; 9: 39–42.
  14. Jasiński R, Poradnik E. Superficial venous anastomosis in the human upper extremity — a post-mortem study. Folia Morphol. 2003; 62(3): 191–199.
  15. Kadanoff D, Čučkov C, Zrinov B. Die Unterschiede im Typ der Hauptanastomose zwischen den grossen Hautvenen der oberen Extremität beim Menschen. Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb. 1966; 109: 340–352.
  16. Mescher A. Junqueira’s basic histology: text and atlas, 13th ed. McGraw-Hill Medical, New York 2013.
  17. Movat H. Demonstration of all connective tissue elements in a single section; pentachrome stains. AMA Arch Pathol. 1955; 60: 289–95.
  18. Ostapowicz R, Głowiński S, Ostapowicz J, et al. Comparison of four types of arterio-venous fistula for hrmodialysis access. Przegląd Flebol. 1995; 3: 83–96.
  19. Putz R, Pabst R. Sobotta. Atlas of human anatomy. 4th ed. Elsevier, Munchen 2006.
  20. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Epub ahead of print 2021. https://www.R-project.org/ (21.05.2023).
  21. Rowley NJ, Dawson EA, Birk GK, et al. Exercise and arterial adaptation in humans: uncoupling localized and systemic effects. J Appl Physiol. 2011; 110(5): 1190–1195.
  22. Russell HK. A modification of Movat's pentachrome stain. Arch Pathol. 1972; 94(2): 187–191.
  23. Sarmento Pires LA, Junior AF, Martins Manaia JH, et al. Comprehensive review of the superficial veins of the forearm from a historical, anatomical and clinical point of view. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2019; 124: 142–152.
  24. Simmons GH, Padilla J, Young CN, et al. Increased brachial artery retrograde shear rate at exercise onset is abolished during prolonged cycling: role of thermoregulatory vasodilation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011; 110(2): 389–397.
  25. Szuba A, Chachaj Z, Koba-Wszedybylb M, et al. Axillary lymph nodes and arm lymphatic drainage pathways are spared during routine complete axillary clearance in majority of women undergoing breast cancer surgery. Lymphology. 2011; 44(3): 103–112.
  26. Tonar Z, Kubíková T, Prior C, et al. Segmental and age differences in the elastin network, collagen, and smooth muscle phenotype in the tunica media of the porcine aorta. Ann Anat. 2015; 201: 79–90.
  27. Vekilov DP, Grande-Allen KJ. Mechanical properties of diseased veins. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2018; 14(3): 182–187.
  28. Wickham H. ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer, New York 2009.
  29. Yammine K, Erić M. Patterns of the superficial veins of the cubital fossa: a meta-analysis. Phlebology. 2017; 32(6): 403–414.
  30. Zhou XH, Obuchowski NA, McClish DK. Statistical methods in diagnostic medicine. Wiley & Sons, Hoboken 2011.
  31. Zoeller RF, Angelopoulos TJ, Thompson BC, et al. Vascular remodeling in response to 12 wk of upper arm unilateral resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41(11): 2003–2008.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By VM Media Group sp. z o.o., Grupa Via Medica, Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.: +48 58 320 94 94, faks: +48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl