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Review article
Submitted: 2023-02-19
Accepted: 2023-09-01
Published online: 2023-11-21
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Morphological variability of the leg muscles: potential traps on ultrasound that await clinicians

Marta Pośnik1, Nicol Zielinska1, Richard Shane Tubbs234567, Kacper Ruzik1, Łukasz Olewnik1
·
Pubmed: 37997455
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomical Dissection and Donation, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
  2. Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
  3. Department of Neurosurgery and Ochsner Neuroscience Institute, Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, LA, United States
  4. Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies
  5. Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
  6. Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
  7. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

open access

Ahead of Print
REVIEW ARTICLES
Submitted: 2023-02-19
Accepted: 2023-09-01
Published online: 2023-11-21

Abstract

Background: Although muscles and their tendons are not considered the most morphologically variable structures, they still manifest a substantial diversity of variants. The aim of this study is to increase awareness of some of the many possible variants found during ultrasound imaging of one lower limb compartment, the leg, that could potentially mislead clinicians and lead to misdiagnosis. Materials and methods: PubMed was used for a comprehensive literature search for morphological variations. Relevant papers were included, and citation tracking was used to identify further publications. Results: Several morphological variants of muscles of the leg have been described over many years, but this study shows that the occurrence of further variations in ultrasound imaging requires further investigations. Conclusions: The incidence of additional structures including muscles and tendons during ultrasound examination can cause confusion and lead to misinterpretation of images, misdiagnosis, and the introduction of unnecessary and inappropriate treatments.

Abstract

Background: Although muscles and their tendons are not considered the most morphologically variable structures, they still manifest a substantial diversity of variants. The aim of this study is to increase awareness of some of the many possible variants found during ultrasound imaging of one lower limb compartment, the leg, that could potentially mislead clinicians and lead to misdiagnosis. Materials and methods: PubMed was used for a comprehensive literature search for morphological variations. Relevant papers were included, and citation tracking was used to identify further publications. Results: Several morphological variants of muscles of the leg have been described over many years, but this study shows that the occurrence of further variations in ultrasound imaging requires further investigations. Conclusions: The incidence of additional structures including muscles and tendons during ultrasound examination can cause confusion and lead to misinterpretation of images, misdiagnosis, and the introduction of unnecessary and inappropriate treatments.

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Keywords

extensor hallucis longus muscle, tibialis anterior muscle, peroneocalcaneus internus, fibularis quartus muscle, popliteus muscle, plantaris muscle, accessory soleus muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, tibialis posterior muscle, flexor digitorum longus muscle, f

About this article
Title

Morphological variability of the leg muscles: potential traps on ultrasound that await clinicians

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Review article

Published online

2023-11-21

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243

Article views/downloads

172

DOI

10.5603/fm.94290

Pubmed

37997455

Keywords

extensor hallucis longus muscle
tibialis anterior muscle
peroneocalcaneus internus
fibularis quartus muscle
popliteus muscle
plantaris muscle
accessory soleus muscle
gastrocnemius muscle
tibialis posterior muscle
flexor digitorum longus muscle
f

Authors

Marta Pośnik
Nicol Zielinska
Richard Shane Tubbs
Kacper Ruzik
Łukasz Olewnik

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