open access

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)
Review article
Submitted: 2022-04-21
Accepted: 2022-06-19
Published online: 2022-06-22
Get Citation

Cleidocervical muscle: a mini literature survey of a human muscle variation

S. Silawal1, V. Franke1, J. Wehrmann1, G. Schulze-Tanzil1
·
Pubmed: 35754186
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(3):513-518.
Affiliations
  1. Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg and Salzburg, General Hospital Nuremberg, Nuremberg, Germany

open access

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-04-21
Accepted: 2022-06-19
Published online: 2022-06-22

Abstract

Cleidocervical muscles (CCM) or levator claviculae muscles in humans can be found
as supernumerary unilaterally or bilaterally on the neck attached proximally to the
clavicle and distally to the transverse process of cervical vertebrae at various levels.
Altogether 20 case reports from year 1994 till present including 25 subjects related
to CCM were found and analysed where parameters such as cervical insertion
level, clavicular insertion at the middle vs. lateral third, unilateral vs. bilateral presence
of the muscle, study type, reported gender of the subjects were extracted.
Our literature survey shows that the prevalence of CCM in male and female was
equally presented in radiological studies whereas almost 3-fold higher prevalence
of males was found in cadaver reports. Since body donor system worldwide is
male dominant, a 1:1 proportion of male and female in radiological studies could
show more reality-based distribution of this muscle. Nevertheless, the presentation
of this muscle was found in over 90% of the case reports unilaterally with higher
left sided dominance. Even though the attachment points of CCM varied from
case to case, the proximal attachment was found slightly more frequent on the
middle third of the clavicle whereas the distal insertion was present more often on
the superior cervical vertebrae than the lower ones. With prevalence of CCM in
the population around 2.0–2.5%, the clinical, radiological and surgical relevance
of this variation has to be highlighted to avoid potential misleading diagnostics
in the neck.

Abstract

Cleidocervical muscles (CCM) or levator claviculae muscles in humans can be found
as supernumerary unilaterally or bilaterally on the neck attached proximally to the
clavicle and distally to the transverse process of cervical vertebrae at various levels.
Altogether 20 case reports from year 1994 till present including 25 subjects related
to CCM were found and analysed where parameters such as cervical insertion
level, clavicular insertion at the middle vs. lateral third, unilateral vs. bilateral presence
of the muscle, study type, reported gender of the subjects were extracted.
Our literature survey shows that the prevalence of CCM in male and female was
equally presented in radiological studies whereas almost 3-fold higher prevalence
of males was found in cadaver reports. Since body donor system worldwide is
male dominant, a 1:1 proportion of male and female in radiological studies could
show more reality-based distribution of this muscle. Nevertheless, the presentation
of this muscle was found in over 90% of the case reports unilaterally with higher
left sided dominance. Even though the attachment points of CCM varied from
case to case, the proximal attachment was found slightly more frequent on the
middle third of the clavicle whereas the distal insertion was present more often on
the superior cervical vertebrae than the lower ones. With prevalence of CCM in
the population around 2.0–2.5%, the clinical, radiological and surgical relevance
of this variation has to be highlighted to avoid potential misleading diagnostics
in the neck.

Get Citation

Keywords

cleidocervical, levator claviculae, cleidoatlanticus, scalene muscles

About this article
Title

Cleidocervical muscle: a mini literature survey of a human muscle variation

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)

Article type

Review article

Pages

513-518

Published online

2022-06-22

Page views

960

Article views/downloads

554

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0062

Pubmed

35754186

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(3):513-518.

Keywords

cleidocervical
levator claviculae
cleidoatlanticus
scalene muscles

Authors

S. Silawal
V. Franke
J. Wehrmann
G. Schulze-Tanzil

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