open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
Case report
Submitted: 2022-03-08
Accepted: 2022-03-15
Published online: 2022-03-29
Get Citation

The first histological observation of a C1 posterior arch defect

Y. Fang1, T. Saga2, J. Iwanaga3456, A. S. Dumont3, R. S. Tubbs34678910
·
Pubmed: 35380011
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):386-390.
Affiliations
  1. Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
  2. Domain of Anatomy, Kurume University School of Nursing, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan
  3. Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
  4. Department of Neurology, Tulane Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
  5. Division of Gross and Clinical Anatomy, Department of Anatomy, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan
  6. Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
  7. Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George’s University, St. George’s, Grenada, West Indies
  8. Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
  9. Department of Neurosurgery and Ochsner Neuroscience Institute, Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, LA, United States
  10. Department of Anatomy, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland

open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
CASE REPORTS
Submitted: 2022-03-08
Accepted: 2022-03-15
Published online: 2022-03-29

Abstract

Deficiencies in the posterior arch of C1 have been well-studied with incidences ranging from 5.65% to 3% and five different classifications. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of information describing the detailed anatomy, muscle attachments, and histology of cases with a C1 posterior arch deficiency. We found a case of an isolated unilateral posterior arch defect in the 83-year-old male cadaver. Histology revealed that the posterior arch defect was filled with collagen fibres and fibrocartilaginous tissue without muscle or bony tissues. This is the first report detailing the histological findings of a  posterior arch defect of C1.

Abstract

Deficiencies in the posterior arch of C1 have been well-studied with incidences ranging from 5.65% to 3% and five different classifications. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of information describing the detailed anatomy, muscle attachments, and histology of cases with a C1 posterior arch deficiency. We found a case of an isolated unilateral posterior arch defect in the 83-year-old male cadaver. Histology revealed that the posterior arch defect was filled with collagen fibres and fibrocartilaginous tissue without muscle or bony tissues. This is the first report detailing the histological findings of a  posterior arch defect of C1.

Get Citation

Keywords

posterior arch, atlas, cervical vertebra, anatomy, histology

About this article
Title

The first histological observation of a C1 posterior arch defect

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)

Article type

Case report

Pages

386-390

Published online

2022-03-29

Page views

2138

Article views/downloads

668

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0035

Pubmed

35380011

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):386-390.

Keywords

posterior arch
atlas
cervical vertebra
anatomy
histology

Authors

Y. Fang
T. Saga
J. Iwanaga
A. S. Dumont
R. S. Tubbs

References (15)
  1. Akobo S, Rizk E, Loukas M, et al. The odontoid process: a comprehensive review of its anatomy, embryology, and variations. Childs Nerv Syst. 2015; 31(11): 2025–2034.
  2. Allam E, Zhou Y. Bipartite atlas or jefferson fracture? A case series and literature review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015; 40(11): E661–E664.
  3. Chaturvedi A, Klionsky NB, Nadarajah U, et al. Malformed vertebrae: a clinical and imaging review. Insights Imaging. 2018; 9(3): 343–355.
  4. Currarino G, Rollins N, Diehl JT. Congenital defects of the posterior arch of the atlas: a report of seven cases including an affected mother and son. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994 ; 15(2): 249–254. Erratum in: AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994; 15(6): A9.
  5. Geipel P. Zur Kenntnis der Spaltbildung des Atlas und Epistropheus. IV. Teil [Studies on the fissure formation of the atlas and epistropheus. IV]. Zentralbl Allg Pathol. 1955; 94(1-2): 19–84.
  6. Hyun G, Allam E, Sander P, et al. The prevalence of congenital C1 arch anomalies. Eur Spine J. 2018; 27(6): 1266–1271.
  7. Iwanaga J, Singh V, Ohtsuka A, et al. Acknowledging the use of human cadaveric tissues in research papers: Recommendations from anatomical journal editors. Clin Anat. 2021; 34(1): 2–4.
  8. Logan WW, Stuard ID. Absent posterior arch of the atlas. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1973; 118(2): 431–434.
  9. Park JS, Eun JP, Lee HO. Anteroposterior spondyloschisis of atlas with bilateral cleft defect of posterior arch: a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011; 36(2): E144–E147.
  10. Park Y, Kim SM, Lee YT, et al. Congenital anomaly of the atlas misdiagnosed as posterior arch fracture of the atlas and atlantoaxial subluxation. Clin Orthop Surg. 2014; 6(1): 96–100.
  11. Petraglia AL, Childs SM, Walker CT, et al. Bipartite atlas in a collegiate football player - Not necessarily a contraindication for return-to-play: A case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol Int. 2012; 3: 126.
  12. Petre BM, Karp JE, Riley LH. Athletic cervical spine injury in the setting of fusion failure of the anterior and posterior atlas. Orthopedics. 2012; 35(9): e1449–e1452.
  13. Sanchis-Gimeno JA, Blanco-Perez E, Aparicio L, et al. Difficulties in distinguishing between an atlas fracture and a congenital posterior atlas arch defect in postmortem analysis. Forensic Sci Int. 2014; 242: e1–e5.
  14. Senoglu M, Safavi-Abbasi S, Theodore N, et al. The frequency and clinical significance of congenital defects of the posterior and anterior arch of the atlas. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007; 7(4): 399–402.
  15. Żytkowski A, Tubbs R, Iwanaga J, et al. Anatomical normality and variability: Historical perspective and methodological considerations. Trans Res Anat. 2021; 23: 100105.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By VM Media Group sp. z o.o., Grupa Via Medica, Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.: +48 58 320 94 94, faks: +48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl