open access

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)
Case report
Submitted: 2022-02-22
Accepted: 2022-05-13
Published online: 2022-05-20
Get Citation

Abnormal vein patterns on the feet: two case reports

B. Karip1, A. Ertaş2
·
Pubmed: 35607869
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(3):732-734.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Hamidiye Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey
  2. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey

open access

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)
CASE REPORTS
Submitted: 2022-02-22
Accepted: 2022-05-13
Published online: 2022-05-20

Abstract

There are many variable variants of the posterior tibial veins and these are extremely
important for the venous circulation of the feet. Due to the complex
and variable nature of the lower extremity veins, their drainage is particularly
important in some surgical operations including flap operations and the treatment
of important pathological conditions such as deep vein thrombosis. The plantar
surface of the foot and the tarsal tunnel have significant neurovascular structures.
Therefore it is extremely difficult to determine a safe zone when working in this
region, especially for surgeons.
In these two cases, abnormal vein patterns with rare anastomoses with their different
drainage patterns and the fenestration were observed in the right and left
feet and medial region of the ankle of male cadavers during the routine dissection.
The clinical importance of this condition was particularly discussed.
There are very limited cadaver studies to find out the relationship between the
posterior tibial veins and great saphenous vein due to the difficulty of working on
surgically deep vein thrombosis and some flap techniques. Therefore the region
should be well known anatomically. Thanks to the variations and the anastomoses
in our study, we aim to contribute to the studies to understand the complex
structure of the region.

Abstract

There are many variable variants of the posterior tibial veins and these are extremely
important for the venous circulation of the feet. Due to the complex
and variable nature of the lower extremity veins, their drainage is particularly
important in some surgical operations including flap operations and the treatment
of important pathological conditions such as deep vein thrombosis. The plantar
surface of the foot and the tarsal tunnel have significant neurovascular structures.
Therefore it is extremely difficult to determine a safe zone when working in this
region, especially for surgeons.
In these two cases, abnormal vein patterns with rare anastomoses with their different
drainage patterns and the fenestration were observed in the right and left
feet and medial region of the ankle of male cadavers during the routine dissection.
The clinical importance of this condition was particularly discussed.
There are very limited cadaver studies to find out the relationship between the
posterior tibial veins and great saphenous vein due to the difficulty of working on
surgically deep vein thrombosis and some flap techniques. Therefore the region
should be well known anatomically. Thanks to the variations and the anastomoses
in our study, we aim to contribute to the studies to understand the complex
structure of the region.

Get Citation

Keywords

posterior tibial veins, great saphenous vein, deep vein thrombosis, anastomosis

About this article
Title

Abnormal vein patterns on the feet: two case reports

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)

Article type

Case report

Pages

732-734

Published online

2022-05-20

Page views

1113

Article views/downloads

576

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0053

Pubmed

35607869

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(3):732-734.

Keywords

posterior tibial veins
great saphenous vein
deep vein thrombosis
anastomosis

Authors

B. Karip
A. Ertaş

References (11)
  1. Baccellieri D, Ardita V, Carta N, et al. Anterior accessory saphenous vein confluence anatomy at the sapheno-femoral junction as risk factor for varicose veins recurrence after great saphenous vein radiofrequency thermal ablation. Int Angiol. 2020; 39(2): 105–111.
  2. Bendix SD, Nolan R, Banipal S, et al. Posterior tibial vein approach to catheter-directed thrombolysis for iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord. 2019; 7(5): 629–634.
  3. Bergan J, Pascarella L, Mekenas L. Venous disorders: treatment with sclerosant foam. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2006; 47(1): 9–18.
  4. Debela D, Ababulgu E, Desu G, et al. Distal deep vein thrombosis in a patient cured of severe COVID-19 pneumonia at Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia 2021: a rare case report. Int Med Case Rep J. 2021; 14: 519–522.
  5. Hill BG, van Rij AM. The lower limb perforator veins in normal subjects. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord. 2022; 10(3): 669–675.e1.
  6. Khan AA, Asari MA, Hassan A, et al. An interconnected duplicated femoral vein and its clinical significance. Folia Morphol. 2013; 72(1): 82–85.
  7. Liu XC, Chen XW, Li ZL, et al. Anatomical distribution of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis in patients with acute stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2020; 29(7): 104866.
  8. Przepiera-Będzak H, Brzosko M. Antiphospholipid syndrome with antiβ2glicoprotein-1 antibodies as the cause of recurrent tibial vein thrombosis in SAPHO syndrome. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2016; 24(4): 305–306.
  9. Uhl JF, Lo Vuolo M, Gillot C. Anatomy of foot and ankle perforator veins. Phlebolymphology. 2021; 50: 59–75.
  10. Yi KH, Kim HJ. Is variation in posterior tibial veins a risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis? Clin Anat. 2021; 34(6): 829–834.
  11. Zhong SZ, Wang GY, Yuan L, et al. Anatomic basis of venous drainage in donor flaps. Surg Radiol Anat. 1994; 16(4): 349–354.

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