open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
Case report
Submitted: 2022-02-13
Accepted: 2022-03-14
Published online: 2022-03-29
Get Citation

Anatomical variation of quadratus plantae in relation to flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus: a rare case

S. Haratizadeh1, S. Seyyedin1, S. N. Nematollahi-mahani2
·
Pubmed: 35380012
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):412-415.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomical Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  2. Department of Anatomical Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
CASE REPORTS
Submitted: 2022-02-13
Accepted: 2022-03-14
Published online: 2022-03-29

Abstract

The quadratus plantae (QP) is considered as a part of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles. This muscle has two lateral and medial heads of origin, both of which arise from the plantar surface of calcaneus, and insert into the tendon of flexor digitorum longus (FDL). Various functions have been attributed to the QP muscle, which includes assisting the plantar flexion of the lateral four toes, straightening the oblique pull of FDL and etc. Several anatomical variations of the QP muscle have been reported in the literature. During a routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy at Kerman University of Medical Sciences, a variant plantar muscle was observed in a 40-year-old male cadaver. In the present case, we report a rare variation associated with the insertion pattern of this muscle, which is reported for the first time in Iran. The tendinous end of the QP muscle was divided into three tendons and were then inserted to the inferior surface of 2nd, 3rd and 4th tendons of FDL. Also, a slim tendinous interconnection was also observed between the QP and flexor hallucis longus (FHL). The lack of connection between the FDL and FHL tendons was the other rare variation of this case. Exact knowledge of the possible variations of the QP muscle is of utmost importance to foot surgeons, clinicians and also anatomists.

Abstract

The quadratus plantae (QP) is considered as a part of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles. This muscle has two lateral and medial heads of origin, both of which arise from the plantar surface of calcaneus, and insert into the tendon of flexor digitorum longus (FDL). Various functions have been attributed to the QP muscle, which includes assisting the plantar flexion of the lateral four toes, straightening the oblique pull of FDL and etc. Several anatomical variations of the QP muscle have been reported in the literature. During a routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy at Kerman University of Medical Sciences, a variant plantar muscle was observed in a 40-year-old male cadaver. In the present case, we report a rare variation associated with the insertion pattern of this muscle, which is reported for the first time in Iran. The tendinous end of the QP muscle was divided into three tendons and were then inserted to the inferior surface of 2nd, 3rd and 4th tendons of FDL. Also, a slim tendinous interconnection was also observed between the QP and flexor hallucis longus (FHL). The lack of connection between the FDL and FHL tendons was the other rare variation of this case. Exact knowledge of the possible variations of the QP muscle is of utmost importance to foot surgeons, clinicians and also anatomists.

Get Citation

Keywords

quadratus plantae, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, foot, tendon

About this article
Title

Anatomical variation of quadratus plantae in relation to flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus: a rare case

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)

Article type

Case report

Pages

412-415

Published online

2022-03-29

Page views

2250

Article views/downloads

891

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0034

Pubmed

35380012

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):412-415.

Keywords

quadratus plantae
flexor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus
foot
tendon

Authors

S. Haratizadeh
S. Seyyedin
S. N. Nematollahi-mahani

References (18)
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