open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
Original article
Submitted: 2022-01-26
Accepted: 2022-02-14
Published online: 2022-03-22
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Multidetector computed tomography evaluation of origin, V2 segment variations and morphology of vertebral artery

R. Tasdemir1, O. F. Cihan2
·
Pubmed: 35347695
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):274-281.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep Islam Science and Technology University, Gaziantep, Turkey
  2. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey

open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-01-26
Accepted: 2022-02-14
Published online: 2022-03-22

Abstract

Background: The current study aimed to determine the origin of vertebral artery
(VA) on both sides and the levels of entry into respective foramen transversarium
(FT), to evaluate possible effects of sex on the entry levels, and to investigate the
frequency of VA dominance and VA hypoplasia based on the VA V2 segment.
Materials and methods: For this study, archived images of patients undergoing
multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examination of the chest and headneck
for various reasons at Gaziantep University Medical Faculty Hospital were
reviewed retrospectively. Three-dimensional reconstructions were performed
for a total of 644 VA images from 322 patients using Horos software, and VA
origin, the level of entry to FT and transverse diameters of both VA and FT were
measured at the point of entry.
Results: It was found that, among males, the VA originated from the truncus
brachiocephalicus on the right side in only 1 patient and from the aortic arch in
2 patients on the left side. Left VA emerging from the aortic arch was observed
in 2 females. The right VA was found to enter the FT at C3 in 1 male, at C4 in
6 patients (5 males, 1 female), at C5 in 19 patients (3 males, 16 females), and
at C6 in 300 patients (141 males, 159 females). The left artery entered the FT at
C5 in 23 patients (9 males, 14 females) and at C6 in 298 patients (141 males,
157 females). Looking at the relationship between variations of VA origin and the
levels of entry to the FT, it was observed that only one of the left VAs originating
from the arcus aorta entered the FT at C6 and at C5 in all others. On the right
side, there was only one VA originating from the truncus brachiocephalicus,
which entered the FT at C3. Of the remaining 248 VAs originating from the
subclavian artery, 5 VAs entered the FT at C4, 14 VAs at C5 and 229 VAs at C6.
The measurements of VA diameters showed right VA hypoplasia in 14 patients
and left VA hypoplasia in 17 patients. Also, the right VA dominance was found
in 110 patients and the left VA dominance in 128 patients. A moderate, positive
correlation was observed between VA and FT diameters in both sides. A regression
analysis showed that a 1 mm change in the right VA diameter was associated with
a 75% change in the FT diameter and a 1 mm change in the left VA diameter
caused a 72% change in the FT diameter.
Conclusions: An understanding of VA variations and FT morphometry is crucial for
informed clinical practice. This will clearly affect the success rates of physicians in
the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies involving cervical region. The presence
of any VA variation in a patient should be investigated on computed tomography
or magnetic resonance imaging images prior to surgery.

Abstract

Background: The current study aimed to determine the origin of vertebral artery
(VA) on both sides and the levels of entry into respective foramen transversarium
(FT), to evaluate possible effects of sex on the entry levels, and to investigate the
frequency of VA dominance and VA hypoplasia based on the VA V2 segment.
Materials and methods: For this study, archived images of patients undergoing
multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examination of the chest and headneck
for various reasons at Gaziantep University Medical Faculty Hospital were
reviewed retrospectively. Three-dimensional reconstructions were performed
for a total of 644 VA images from 322 patients using Horos software, and VA
origin, the level of entry to FT and transverse diameters of both VA and FT were
measured at the point of entry.
Results: It was found that, among males, the VA originated from the truncus
brachiocephalicus on the right side in only 1 patient and from the aortic arch in
2 patients on the left side. Left VA emerging from the aortic arch was observed
in 2 females. The right VA was found to enter the FT at C3 in 1 male, at C4 in
6 patients (5 males, 1 female), at C5 in 19 patients (3 males, 16 females), and
at C6 in 300 patients (141 males, 159 females). The left artery entered the FT at
C5 in 23 patients (9 males, 14 females) and at C6 in 298 patients (141 males,
157 females). Looking at the relationship between variations of VA origin and the
levels of entry to the FT, it was observed that only one of the left VAs originating
from the arcus aorta entered the FT at C6 and at C5 in all others. On the right
side, there was only one VA originating from the truncus brachiocephalicus,
which entered the FT at C3. Of the remaining 248 VAs originating from the
subclavian artery, 5 VAs entered the FT at C4, 14 VAs at C5 and 229 VAs at C6.
The measurements of VA diameters showed right VA hypoplasia in 14 patients
and left VA hypoplasia in 17 patients. Also, the right VA dominance was found
in 110 patients and the left VA dominance in 128 patients. A moderate, positive
correlation was observed between VA and FT diameters in both sides. A regression
analysis showed that a 1 mm change in the right VA diameter was associated with
a 75% change in the FT diameter and a 1 mm change in the left VA diameter
caused a 72% change in the FT diameter.
Conclusions: An understanding of VA variations and FT morphometry is crucial for
informed clinical practice. This will clearly affect the success rates of physicians in
the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies involving cervical region. The presence
of any VA variation in a patient should be investigated on computed tomography
or magnetic resonance imaging images prior to surgery.

Get Citation

Keywords

multidetector computed tomography, morphometry, vertebral artery, foramen transversarium

About this article
Title

Multidetector computed tomography evaluation of origin, V2 segment variations and morphology of vertebral artery

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)

Article type

Original article

Pages

274-281

Published online

2022-03-22

Page views

2353

Article views/downloads

773

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0030

Pubmed

35347695

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):274-281.

Keywords

multidetector computed tomography
morphometry
vertebral artery
foramen transversarium

Authors

R. Tasdemir
O. F. Cihan

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