open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
Original article
Submitted: 2022-01-25
Accepted: 2022-02-23
Published online: 2022-03-08
Get Citation

A new classification system of trifid mandibular canal derived from Malaysian population

S.Y.A. Al-Siweedi1, W. C. Ngeow1, P. Nambiar12, M. I. Abu-Hassan3, R. Ahmad3, M. K. Asif4, W. L. Chai5
·
Pubmed: 35285511
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):315-324.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Jln SP 2, Bandar Saujana Putra, Jenjarum, Selangor, Malaysia
  3. Centre of Studies for Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg Buloh, Malaysia
  4. Department of Research and Forensic Odontology, Shifa College of Dentistry, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  5. Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-01-25
Accepted: 2022-02-23
Published online: 2022-03-08

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to identify and classify the anatomic
variation of mandibular canal among Malaysians of three ethnicities.
Materials and methods: The courses of the mandibular canal in 202 cone-beam
computed tomography scanned images of healthy Malaysians were evaluated,
and trifid mandibular canal (TMC) when present, were recorded and studied in
detail by categorizing them to a new classification (comprising of 12 types). The
diameter and length of canals were also measured, and their shape determined.
Results: Trifid mandibular canals were observed in 12 (5.9%) subjects or 16 (4.0%)
hemi-mandibles. There were 10 obvious categories out the 12 types of TMCs
listed. All TMCs (except one) were observed in patients older than 30 years. The
prevalence according to ethnicity was 6 in Malays, 5 in Chinese and 1 in Indian.
Four (33.3%) patients had bilateral TMCs, which was not seen in the Indian subject.
More than half (56.3%) of the accessory canals were located above the main
mandibular canal. Their mean diameter was 1.32 mm and 1.26 mm for the first
and second accessory canal, and the corresponding lengths were 20.42 mm and
21.60 mm, respectively. Most (62.5%) canals had irregularly shaped lumen; there
were more irregularly shaped canals in the second accessory canal than the first
branch. None of the second accessory canal was oval (in shape).
Conclusions: This new classification can be applied for the variations in the
branching pattern, length and shape of TMCs for better clinical description.

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to identify and classify the anatomic
variation of mandibular canal among Malaysians of three ethnicities.
Materials and methods: The courses of the mandibular canal in 202 cone-beam
computed tomography scanned images of healthy Malaysians were evaluated,
and trifid mandibular canal (TMC) when present, were recorded and studied in
detail by categorizing them to a new classification (comprising of 12 types). The
diameter and length of canals were also measured, and their shape determined.
Results: Trifid mandibular canals were observed in 12 (5.9%) subjects or 16 (4.0%)
hemi-mandibles. There were 10 obvious categories out the 12 types of TMCs
listed. All TMCs (except one) were observed in patients older than 30 years. The
prevalence according to ethnicity was 6 in Malays, 5 in Chinese and 1 in Indian.
Four (33.3%) patients had bilateral TMCs, which was not seen in the Indian subject.
More than half (56.3%) of the accessory canals were located above the main
mandibular canal. Their mean diameter was 1.32 mm and 1.26 mm for the first
and second accessory canal, and the corresponding lengths were 20.42 mm and
21.60 mm, respectively. Most (62.5%) canals had irregularly shaped lumen; there
were more irregularly shaped canals in the second accessory canal than the first
branch. None of the second accessory canal was oval (in shape).
Conclusions: This new classification can be applied for the variations in the
branching pattern, length and shape of TMCs for better clinical description.

Get Citation

Keywords

accessory canal, mandibular canal, trifid mandibular canal, cone-beam computed tomography, Malaysians

About this article
Title

A new classification system of trifid mandibular canal derived from Malaysian population

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)

Article type

Original article

Pages

315-324

Published online

2022-03-08

Page views

2267

Article views/downloads

765

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0024

Pubmed

35285511

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):315-324.

Keywords

accessory canal
mandibular canal
trifid mandibular canal
cone-beam computed tomography
Malaysians

Authors

S.Y.A. Al-Siweedi
W. C. Ngeow
P. Nambiar
M. I. Abu-Hassan
R. Ahmad
M. K. Asif
W. L. Chai

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